Friday, December 27, 2019
As Jeremy Butterfield points out: The relationship between the forms rack and wrack is complicated, and the spellings are sometimes interchangeable (Oxford A-Z of English Usage, 2013). Definitions Rack and Wrack as VerbsAs a verb, rack means to torture or cause great suffering, or to place (something) in or on a rack. The verb wrackÃ means to wreck or cause the ruin of something. RackÃ andÃ WrackÃ as NounsAs aÃ noun,Ã rack means a frame, a shelf, an instrument of torture, or a state of intense anguish. The noun wrack means destruction or wreckage. Idiomatically, we may rack the billiard balls, rack up points, and roast a rack of lamb. But when it comes to nerve-(w)racking experiences or (w)racking our brains, most writers, dictionaries, and usage guides admit to being (w)racked with uncertainty. See the (sometimes contradictory) usage notes below. Examples OneÃ bicycle, rusted as ifÃ it had been there for years, leaned in the rack, its fenders supporting crescents of white. (John Updike, Flight.Ã The Early Stories: 1953-1975. Knopf,Ã 2003)To delight in seeing men stabbed, poisoned, racked, or impaled is certainly the sign of a cruel temper. (Joseph Addison, The Spectator, April 20, 1711)I have sometimes been wildly, despairingly, acutely miserable, racked with sorrow, but through it all, I still know quite certainly that just to be alive is a grand thing. (Agatha Christie, An Autobiography, 1977)Penny was wracked with sorrow for his friends. His face was strained. (Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling, 1938)There is a half-filled baby bottle on the cupboard shelf. She picks it up. The babys cry is becoming nerve-wracking. (Paddy Chayefsky, The Goddess, 1958)But having to be present for merchandise deliveries that Eunice ordered online or on the phone was nerve-racking. (Joseph Wambaugh, Hollywood Moon, 2009)Lud had been going to wrack and ruin for centuries. (Stephen King, Wizard, and Glass, 1997) Usage Notes and Idiom Alerts Rack and wrack are confused so frequently that most dictionaries now list both spellings for the verb meaning torment and the noun meaning destruction. (Margery Fee and Janice McAlpine, Guide to Canadian English Usage, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2007) Idioms and Variant Spellings In some senses, the verbs rack and wrack are synonymous, and the two words, each as either noun or verb, are nearly interchangeable at some points. The usage problems arise over which spelling to use where there seems to be a possible or a clear overlap in meaning. Most Edited English will prefer to rack your brain, wrack and ruin, storm-wracked, and pain-wracked, but other Standard written evidence, including some Edited English, will use the variant spelling for each. (Kenneth G. Wilson, The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Columbia University Press, 1993) (W)rack and Ruin The expression (w)rack and ruin preserves the original sense of destruction. (These days rack, and ruin is the more common spelling in both British and American English, by the evidence of the BNC and CCAE.)...As often, figurative uses of rack and wrack have enlarged their domains and made the spelling interchangeable wherever the sense of severe stress and destruction apply. Wrack seems to be gaining ground there, although still less common than rack in collocations such as nerve-racking and racking ones brains. (Pam Peters, The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge University Press, 2004) Nerve-Racking Wrack is commonly used as a verb synonymous with the figurative senses of rack...Probably the most sensible attitude would be to ignore the etymologies of rack and wrack (which, of course, is exactly what most people do) and regard them simply as spelling variants of one word. If you choose to toe the line drawn by the commentators, however, you will want to write nerve-racking, rack ones brains, storm-wracked, and for good measure wrack and ruin. Then you will have nothing to worry about being criticized forÃ¢â¬âexcept, of course, for using too many clichÃ ©s. (Merriam-Websters Dictionary of English Usage, Merriam-Webster, 1994) Rack em Up The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage has a great idea here: Never use wrack, because it confuses people. Instead, when wrack means wreck, just use wreck. (But when you mean inflict damage, spell it wreak. You wreak havoc on; you never wreck havoc because havoc is unwreckable.)O.K., keynoters, lets rack em up: Its traditional to rack up your opponent with a good tongue-lashing for having led the country to wrack and ruin, and after you rack up a victory, you can wreak patronage vengeance from high atop your city on a hill. (William Safire, Quoth the Maven: More on Language from William Safire. Random House, 1993) Wracked With Doubt The noun rack applies to various types of framework; the verb rack means to arrange on a rack, to torture, trouble, or torment: He was placed on the rack. She racked her brain....The noun wrackÃ means ruin or destruction, as in wrack and ruin and wracked with pain. Also nerve-wracking....The verb wrack has substantially the same meaning as the verb rack, the latter being preferred. (The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law 2011. Associated Press, 2015) Practice He placed his trunk in the luggage _____ and took a seat by the window.The bridge had fallen into _____ and ruin. Answers to Practice Exercises Answers to Practice Exercises: Rack and Wrack He placed his trunk in the luggage rack and took a seat by the window.The bridge had fallen into (w)rack and ruin.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Technology and Happiness James Surowiecki In the 20th century, Americans, Europeans, and East Asians enjoyed material and technological advances that were unimaginable in previous eras. In the United States, for example, gross domestic product per capita tripled from 1950 to 2000. Life expectancy soared. The boom in productivity after World War II made goods better and cheaper at the same time. Things that were once luxuries, such as jet travel and long-distance phone calls, became necessities. And even though Americans seemed to work extraordinarily hard, their pursuit of entertainment turned media and leisure into multibillion-dollar industries. By most standards, then, you would have to say that Americans are better off now than theyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These are all phenomena that make people consciously unhappy. But for the most part, modern critiques(Ã¨ ¯âÃ¨ ® º)of technology have focused not so much on specific, bad technologies as the impact of technology on our human relationships. Privacy has become increasingly fragile(Ã¦ËâÃ§ ¢Å½Ã§Å¡â)in a world of linked databases. In many workplaces, technologies like keystroke monitoring and full recording of phone calls make it easier to watch workers. The notion that technology disrupts relationships and fractures community gained mainstream prominence as an attack on television. Some even say that TV is chiefly responsible for the gradual isolation of Americans from each other. Similarly, the harmful effects of the Internet, which supposedly further isolates people from what is often called Ã¢â¬Å"the real worldÃ¢â¬ . This broad criticism of technologyÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on relationships is an interesting one and is especially relevant to the question of happiness, because one of the few things we can say for certain is that the more friends and the closer relationships people have, the happier they tend to be. Today, technological change is so rapid that when you buy something, you do so knowing that in a few months thereÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be a better, faster version for the product, and that youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to be stuck with the old one. Someone else, in other words, has it better. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as if disappointment were built into acquisition from the very beginning. Daily stress, an annoyingShow MoreRelatedFahrenheit 451 : Technology And Happiness1177 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages There is no question that science and technology is as essential to functioning in an advanced society as soil is essential for a flower. In numerous communities, technology is so often an asset to be yearned for. 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The people in the World State are ignorant of the truth. They mistake the truth as happiness. This ignorance leads them to believe that a tablet called soma is used Ã¢â¬Å"to c alm your anger, to reconcile you to your enemies, to make you patientÃ¢â¬ (Huxley 213). Through drugs and conditioning, the government has kept the World State uninformed of the truth. Being controlled by the governmentRead MoreHuman Interaction: Plugged or Unplugged Essay1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesare we better unplugged with less noise, without the deluge of information that is thrown thrust upon us daily. Andrew Sullivan who wrote the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Society Is Dead, We Have Retreated into the iWorldÃ¢â¬ believes that we are being inundated with technology and that it is creating a bubble effect. A bubble effect that is creating an isolation that is killing socialization, or possibly taking away the opportunities to have serendipitous events occur in our lives if we tune others out. Sullivan statesRead MoreModernization Impacts PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢S Lives Everywhere. On One1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe positive and negative effects of technology. The improvements consummate our living system and bring convenience to everyday lives while the pace of life is increasing with technological advancements. Obviously, the perfection of lives is a process, and high-speed lives brings the negative effects such as lessening the time with families. However, life is the pursuit of happiness; to most people, happiness is the same as wealth and the pursuit of happiness is the same as earning money. I nevitablyRead MoreThe Question of Happiness751 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEnglish assignment A The texts in section A focus on happiness 1. Write a summary of text 1 Ã¢â¬Å"The Question of HappinessÃ¢â¬ in about 150 words. Tal Ben-Shahar was 16 year old when he won his first Israeli National Squash Championship. He though by winning the title he could fill the emptiness there is over him. Even though he has his training he felt that something was missing, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t had all the normal things others have. He believed in the sentence he made himself Ã¢â¬Å"Winning the championshipRead MoreThe Impact Of Digital Technology On Our Society974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinevitably end up changing ourselves. Digital technology happens to be one of the most rapidly changing aspects of our culture. In fact, the changes we ve made in technology have been so staggering that for a while, we had overlooked the ways that technology had been changing us. Advancements in technology have revolutionized the way we work, learn, play, and communicate with one another. At first, it may seem as though changes in digital technology have had mainly positive effects on our society
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Chital Campbell October 3, 2011 Over the period of years music has changed drastically. Music has become a major factor in peoples lives of all ages. Music is becoming a mixed variety of different cultures. For example more African-American cultures are beginning to like more of the Pop music instead of Just and Rap. The impact of music does not impact Just certain ages but it impacts all ages. The reason for that is music give a broader Impact on what is being played.Also, children from the ages of one and up are mostly listening to the same music as their parents. Finally, the Impact of music gives people of all ages to dress a certain way. To begin with, music gives a broader impact on what is being played. Music today opens up a wide variety of sounds. Many people do not listen to the lyrics, but they listen to the beats that are being played. We will write a custom essay sample on Music and Its Impact on People of Different Ages or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The beats of music are far more important than the lyrics because rappers and singers are finding ways to make money off of them. The beats of music are the money maker and It impacts music a whole lot.Also, aspiring rappers and singers are even trying to create their own music on these different beats so they could be recognized. Music producers and artist know what is going to sell to the audience. The variety of sounds that are put out their gives a broader impact of what is heard in music. Next, children from the ages of one and up are mostly listening to the same music as their parents. When It comes to music most children can tell what the name of a song is and what the words are within the song. Children are impacted by music because most parents are not letting them listen to any other music besides Rap andR. For example, a child can sings Nick Minas song or Ill Wayne song but cant sing their Abss. In my opinion these artist may need to come up with their own version of the BBC song and children will be willing and eager to learn. Music does Impact learning for children because they really do not want to listen to anything else but Rap, Pop, and R. It is sad that it has come to this but parents need to look more into their childrens education instead of letting them listen to cursing and other subjective things in music. Finally, the impact of music gives people of all ages to dress a certain way.In the allow the styles they see of different music artist. For example, the skinny Jeans and tight t-shirt look. Many rap artists are into the skinny Jeans and tight t-shirts and as I can see so are the ones who are not celebrities. The styles of all music artists change up in many different ways. People of all ages are trying to keep up with them. There are cheap ways to keep up with the look but it can get expensive. People have to the right to dress anyway they want but at the same time they are copying their favorite rapper or singer. To summarize, music does have an impact on people of all different ages.Music has changed over the years and now it has become more aware for the younger generation. Music gives a broader impact on what is being played. The beats of music are the money maker and they have a bigger impact than the lyrics. Children from ages one and up are mostly listening to the same music as their parents. Children can sing songs for different artists but they cannot sing their Abss. The impact of music gives people of all ages to dress a certain way. The skinny Jeans and tight t-shirt look is a trend that everyone is following because they see on their favorite rapper or singer.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Yellow Journalism Essay The people of Russia were led to believe that on New Years Day, January 1st, President Boris Yeltsin suspiciously and suddenly resigned. Some people claim he was to old and to senile to finish his presidential term, others claim he was too sick, deathly sick, others claim he was just fed up with the horrible condition of the Russian Government. Still, a raising number of conspirators are led to believe that Boris Yeltsin, in no way resigned, but was silently assassinated by a group of terrorist rebels from Southern Siberia. Russian Intelligence staged the entire resigning to prevent panic and chaos amongst citizens during the coming of the New Year. Although not a thing has been proved yet, people in Russia are beginning to get suspicious, Yeltsin has not been seen on the news or in his private estate. We will write a custom essay on Yellow Journalism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The Rallies held to conspire about the truth are brutally broken-up by Moscow police officers with knight sticks and riot poles, many citizens are rushed to the hospital to intensive care. All Russian Government officials are holding comments until further notice. It is rumored that the over eight turbulent and often chaotic years of social and political transformation Yeltsin presided were just too much for the rebels to put up with. It is said Boris Yeltsin was assassinated within the Kremlin. It also seems the rebels attempts did help Russia at all. Bibliography: .
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
He states: Fellow-citizens, above your national, tumultuous joy, I hear the mournful wail of millions whose chains, heavy and grievous yesterday, are, to-day, rendered more intolerable by the jubilee shouts that reach them(480). If Douglass was never a slave, the quote wouldnt had been as powerful in its deliverance. Douglass uses pathos to describe an emotional event that anyone can relate to; since everyone agrees that children are so innocent. Suddenly you hear a quick snap your ears are saluted with a scream, that seems to have torn its way to the centre of your soul(486). Douglass is a very good writer and speaker, he does argumentative description very well. The thought of someone cruel enough to whip the flesh off of a womans back while shes caring her baby, is chilling. Douglass uses a lot of descriptive writing mixed with pathos throughout his essay, and its astonishing how effective it is. We will write a custom essay sample on Frederick Douglas Ethos Pathos Logos or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The argument itself, or logos, is slavery. Douglass illustrates his argument throughout the essay. For instance, There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven that does not know that slavery is wrong for him(482). Again, at the end of his essay: There are forces in operation which must inevitably work the downfall of slavery(487). Frederick Douglass was a master of persuasion, with ethos, pathos, and logos, in his arsenal of charisma.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Write Impressive Economics Personal Statement Essays Write Impressive Economics Personal Statement Essay Write Impressive Economics Personal Statement Essay Although economics seems to be a very demanding discipline but still many people find themselves attracted to it. By pursuing a degree in economics students who are attracted to this subject are able to examine it in more detail and they are able to explore different sorts of interesting and complex topics in great length such as game theory, aggregate demand and supply, compound interest, stochastic dominance, etc. An economics personal statement is an essential part of admission as required by the admission board of any college. Applicants are expected to write and submit an impressive personal statement detailing what are their interests, why they want to pursue the field of economics and what makes them a good fit for their academia. In the following tips you will learn about some important elements that makes a personal statement an impressive and compelling one. Write unique statements It is very important that you give accurate answers to the questions that are asked in the personal statement. It is not unusual for a student to post the applications to several academies and it is possible that each application may have some similar questions. However, it is advisable that the student must use a slightly different statement for every application. Again, make sure that the answer is accurate and to the point. Describe yourself in an effective manner Keep in mind that a personal statement is used by the admission board to assess students for their college. Therefore, it is important that you demonstrate your experience, traits or qualities in an effective manner. Check out some sample personal statements in order to get an idea how a personal statement is written and prepare a unique statement. Keep the statement fresh, interesting and unique in order to retain the interest of the admission board. Keep your statement specific It is important to keep the statement specific and answer only what is asked. When you state that you would make an expert market analyst, you have to support such claim with particular reasons or proof. Demonstrate your general knowledge of economics or international market to the committee to back up your claims. Make your opening interesting It is also essential that the opening of the personal statement should be unique and interesting. Admission board oftentimes gets bored with reading uninteresting statements and naturally they donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay must attention to such statements. So in order to get their attention you need to start your statement with an interesting statement or sentence. Tell them about yourself In the body of the personal statement, discuss about your interests, hobbies and other necessary things which you think needs the attention of the committee. Carry out some research Carry out a detailed research on the educational institute which you are applying to. Many institutes ask the applicants why they seek admission in their academy. By doing a comprehensive research on the academy you will be able to answer them what makes them different from rest of the academic institutes. Write an attractive economics personal statement by following the aforementioned tips.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Post Confederation Canadian History - Essay Example As a ruling myth, nationalism was used to eclipse other social divisions, especially class, by positing an overarching national identity that promoted relations of domination and discouraged an effective, united challenge to the system through scapegoating 'others.' In the nationalist discourse of the social reform movement, concepts of race and nation were fused and simultaneously based on the principles of exclusion and inclusion. Consequently, as Robert Miles argues for the similar British case, 'racism' formed 'the lining of the cloak of nationalism.' Gender ideals -- women's 'respectable' role as domestic manager, reproducer, and nurturer -- also interacted with concepts of nation, race, and class in the reform project as women's proper role in the domestic sphere was considered essential to 'Canadianizing' the working class. State intervention in the housing sphere in the interwar period was limited when compared with initiatives in the post-Second World War era; fewer than 7000 houses were built under government auspices in the period. But the discourse of housing betterment, along with its counterparts in other areas of social policy and the practical measures implemented at the local level, assisted in strengthening the popular fiction of 'Canadian' supremacy and spreading the bigoted message that 'outsiders' (however loosely defined) were to blame for the country's problems. This attitude dovetailed neatly with the divide-and-rule strategy pursued by government officials increasingly concerned with the intense class struggles of the period. Social planning experiments were circumscribed but nevertheless emblematic of significant developments in the history of the Canadian state and reform ideas. Central to this process was the contribution of housing reformers to the question of what constituted the Canadian nation and, more crucially, a 'proper' Canadian. Reform-minded state officials sought popular legitimacy by reinforcing pre-existing notions of the dangerous 'other' -- non-British, non-white 'races' and 'nations' and, increasingly, urban native-born and British immigrant workers -- in stark opposition to the ideal of the cherished and respectable 'white British Canadian.' Simultaneously, the reform tendencies of the period sustained and deepened the conviction that women's role was solely in the home as nurturer and Canadianizer of the 'race.' Through reform propaganda and practical implementation of various housing reform measures, it proved useful for reformers to attribute social and economic afflictions to the so-called inferiority and 'un-Canadianness' of various social groups --immigrants, women, and workers -- rather than to structural flaws in the capitalist sys tem itself. 'Reform' in the First World War period can be defined as an approach advocating state intervention in the economy and society to alleviate the social problems of capitalism and thereby preserve the system itself. The role housing reform could play, as part of the larger project of securing social consent by stabilizing family structures and contributing to the construction of a distinct national identity, constituted a pivotal concern in the discourse of the reform effort. Yet without losing sight of this distinct regulatory thrust from above, it is also necessary to chart
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Renewable EnergyExplore the United States history of renewable energy, where the country stands currently and its future outlook. Examine the problems with re - Essay Example Though there is no shortage of any non-renewable fuel, critics of their use point out that it is logically possible to use up nonrenewable fuels" (Pimental, et.al, 1994, pg. 1). If something does not change, the United States has the potential to encounter serious energy shortages before too long. The purpose of this paper is to explore the United States' history of renewable energy, where the country stands currently, its future outlook, implement current government issues and social issues on the topic, and to examine the problems with renewable energy (National Center for Policy Analysis Idea House, 2008). Water-powered systems have been used for centuries. Today, water power is used mainly to generate electricity. "For many centuries, wind power like water power has provided energy to pump water and run mills and other machines. In rural America windmills have been used to generate electricity since the early 1900s" (Pimental, et.al, 1994, pg. 1). Harvested from forests, biomass energy currently provides the United States with 4.2% of its energy supply. It is used even more prominently in other countries, especially developing countries. The sun's energy is converted into heat through solar thermal energy systems and then is used in houses, in different industrial settings, and to generate electricity. ... current usage of renewable resources is passive heating and cooling of buildings although it is not being used to its full extent as of yet (Pimental, et.al, 1994). Its Future Outlook "The use of solar energy is, however, expected to grow. Renewable energy technologies that have the potential to provide future energy supplies include: biomass systems, hydroelectric systems, hydrogen fuel, wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, and passive and active heating and cooling systems" (Pimental, et.al, 1994, pg. 1). The use of alternative liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen are also likely to pick up in the future (Bruce and Pickering, 2008). The Problems with Renewable Energy Just like non-renewable resources, renewable energy sources have their own conflicts and these are likely to increase along with the increased usage of renewable resources in the future. Some problems that are likely to occur are limited availability of land, limited abilities to harvest forest resources within the United States forcing these resources to be imported, and a growing population (Pimental, et.al, 1994). Social and Political Concerns "The first priority of a sustainable US energy program should be for individuals, communities, and industries to conserve fossil energy resources. Other developed countries have proven that high productivity and a high standard of living can be achieved with considerably less energy expenditure compared to that of the United States. Improved energy efficiency in the United States, other developed nations, and even in developing nations would help both extend the world's fossil energy resources and improve the environment" (Pimentel et al. 1994). Conclusion The purpose of this paper has been to explore the United States'
Sunday, November 17, 2019
SKILLS GAPPING - Essay Example For example, if the area was customer service focused, skills gapping would look for gaps in areas of service delivery and then try to bridge that gap through training or technology. The health care environment can benefit greatly from skills gapping, especially in areas of patient care in a hospital setting. Nurses and physicians, and many other support staff, are exposed to people of many different cultural, ethnic, or family backgrounds and each have different interpersonal dimensions and personalities. Being able to provide a quality face-to-face interaction with patients, at all staff levels, means being able to be adaptive to their unique cultural values. Skills gapping could recognize all areas which come in contact with patients, assess the goals of each job role, and then assess staff for their ability to provide multi-cultural support at the social level. Gaps in knowledge or experience in these areas would be located in skills gapping process, allowing for the health care analyst to review training programs related to multi-cultural relationships or enhancing patient psychology. Patient care is much more than just the delivery of medicine, it is inter active at multiple staff levels and skills gapping can be a competitive edge. Offers one human resources expert, Ã¢â¬Å"Training and development plans should be regularly reviewed and certainly more than once per yearÃ¢â¬ (Wilson and Western, 2001, p.93). It seems that many companies develop training programs and then continue to allow them to become standardized over the passage of time without upgrading or modernizing them. This would provide ineffective training for the real-time health care environment. Skills gapping can act as a regular auditing tool within the business to improve training delivery and training program development which would be ongoing. For example, if a hospital administrator decided that it would become the organizational mission to
Friday, November 15, 2019
An Examination Of The Effect Of Benazir Bhutto Politics Essay Enlightenment of Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian countries have recently sparked conflict with Western nations due to their traditional law codes and unethical treatment towards citizens. In the west, countries value freedom and unalienable rights, while in Southeast Asian countries, such as Pakistan, the leaders generally rule according to their strict religious law codes. Ever since Pakistan separated from India in 1947, its people have suffered under tyrannical and extremist leaders. As devout Muslims, the majority of Pakistani people are forced to follow Islamic traditional laws, such as purdah, which take away from their unalienable rights. Women and children are especially negatively affected by these traditional law codes, and until recently no Pakistani leader had tried to reform the Pakistani government. Benazir Bhutto was the daughter of renowned politician, and she sought to reform Pakistans government in order to improve the lives of her citizens. She was elected twice as Prime Minister of Pakistan, and she served for a total of four years as Pakistans leader (Wynbrandt, James). Although failing to achieve most of her goals as Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto sought to bring western ideas to southwest Asia by restoring human rights and guiding the Pakistani government towards democracy. Although Bhuttos intentions as Prime Minister were ethical and fair, she was unable to effectively implement her target plans due to her short time in office. Bhutto had chosen a near impossible task by trying to reform Pakistan because many rivaling politicians and citizens were afraid of change. In order to avoid change and remove Bhutto from office, Bhuttos rival politicians accused her of many fallacious crimes. Bhutto spent her whole life working hard and trying to follow in the footsteps of her father, and in 1988 Bhutto had finally won the elections for Prime Minister. As the first woman Prime Minister of Pakistan, she spoke out her plans to steer the country towards western ideals. Twenty months later, Bhuttos rival politician named President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, who was now backed by the Pakistani military, did not want these types of changes for Pakistan. In result, Khan accused Bhutto of abuse of power, nepotism, and economic mismanagement, and Bhutto was kicked from office (Wynbrandt, James). In her first term as Prime Minister she had promised her people many changes, but due to her short time in office she could not follow through with the promises. Bhutto was viewed as a bad Muslim by her fellow politicians and she was banned from politics for the next two years. Despite this, she won the elections of 1993 and she once again tried to implement her ambitious ideas. During her second term in office, she again voiced out many of her western driven ideals. These included striving for democracy and improving human rights; but two major problems faced Bhutto in her second term. First, Bhuttos brother had turned on her and a few months later he had been assassinated. Bhutto claimed that her political enemies had arranged for the shooting so they could blame her, but those who were opposed to Bhutto claimed she and her husband were behind the killing. Second, Bhutto and her husband were accused of embezzling millions of dollars from the Pakistani governmen t. Although Bhutto was not proven guilty for either of these charges, she was booted from office once again for corruption (Wynbrandt, James). She had failed for the second time to effectively implant her promises for the Pakistani citizens. After Bhuttos two failed attempts at bringing democracy to Pakistan, she left the country and resided in England. The people of Pakistan again were forced to live under an extremist leader. Not only had Bhutto failed to complete her short term goals, but today in Pakistan there is conflict which dates back to her terms in office. Her political party, the Pakistans People Party, still exists in Pakistan and it is a strong supporter of democracy. Taliban is a terrorist organization in Pakistan that extreme dislikes democracy, so great conflict has arisen between these two extremely contradicting ideologies. Pakistan is still considered a politically unstable nation mainly due to the Taliban conflict, which can be partly blamed on Bhutto for introd ucing democracy (Groff, Claire Price). Bhutto failed two times to implement her goals as Prime Minister and she introduced a conflict which still goes on today, but her intentions are what made her a heroine. Benazir Bhutto sought to restore and protect human rights for the Pakistani people, which would serve as a huge step in modernizing Pakistan. During her time as Prime Minister, Bhutto stressed the point that she wanted to eliminate human rights violations against Pakistani citizens and improve their quality of life. Before she was Prime Minister, women in Pakistan possessed miniscule rights. They were not allowed to go to school, they had to cover they faces with clothes, and they were generally not allowed to be seen in public. This forced women in Pakistan to live very boring and meaningless lives. As a member of the Pakistans People Party, Bhutto revised her policies in order to give more rights to women. Her policy on women rights stated, The PPP Parliamentarians pledges to promote universal female literacy and protection of the child to honor our women and our future generations (Benazirbhutto.org). Bhutto pledged to give women the rights to literacy and protection. As a woman, Bhutto had experienced the awful crimes done against women and their restrictions in the Pakistani society. She sought to eradicate the traditional Pakistani laws which prevented women from possessing unalienable rights. This would serve as a huge step for Pakistan considering modern countries of the world today value women and men equally. Another major problem that was present prior to Bhuttos reign was the discrimination of minorities. Since Pakistan is full of devout Muslims, followers of other religions were outlawed. Bhuttos policy for human rights stated, The PPP Parliamentarians pledges to protect the minorities. It pledges to protect the weak from the strong. It pledges to undo laws that are discriminatory against minorities. It calls upon the people of Pakistan to give it a constitutional majority to build a society where the weak and underprivileged are freed from archaic state laws (The Independent, London). Bhutto sought to do everything necessary in order to give all c itizens of Pakistan equal rights and eliminate ethnic discrimination in her country. Even though racism is hard to eliminate completely in any nation, by recognizing it and speaking out against it Bhutto was improving the human rights of her nation. Another action taken by Bhutto to improve human rights of her nation was lifting the restrictions against the press. Prior to her reign, Pakistani citizens did not have the freedom of press, which made it hard for them to trust the media. Under the extremist leaders, the government manipulated the news and they only allowed certain books and newspapers to be published (Kuhlman, Erica Ann). Lifting the ban on freedom of press significantly modernized Pakistan because now people could freely voice their opinions and truly believe the media. Also, the material which people read was no longer manipulated by the government so people learned the truth about their own country and the whole world. By developing the human rights of the Pakistani people, Bhutto was introducing her people to western ideals and improving there lives. In an attempt to modernize the government of Pakistan, Bhutto tried to guide her country towards democracy. During the end of her second term in office, Bhutto was interviewed about her plans on the future of her political career. She responded, There are other issues like lifting the military imposed ban on a twice elected prime minister contesting election for a third time forÃ Prime Minister, appointment of Governors, members of the Judiciary and Election Commission. The Charter of Democracy spells out the changes needed (Benazirbhutto.org). She not only wanted to become the Prime Minister for a third semester, but she also strove to change the political system in order to make it similar to a democracy. By appointing governors, Bhutto would promote local governments to rule under the umbrella of the national government. The U.S. has a similar government in which state-run governments run the states while the national government rules over the whole nation. Bhutto would also bet ter the Judiciary branch of Pakistans government by appointing more Judiciary members. She also would promote democracy by appointing more people to the election commission. With a stable election commission, the elections for president would not be manipulated and the winner of the election would truly be chosen by the people. Another point that Bhutto stressed in her policies was improving the law code in Pakistan (Benazirbhutto.org). Throughout the many years of oppressive rule, thousands of men and women were jailed without the chance to a fair trial. In order to prevent this from occurring in the future, Bhutto set up a new court system in which all men and women accused of breaking the law would be able to have a fair trial. She also freed hundreds of people that had been jailed without trial to exhibit her devotion to freedom and democracy. Bhutto knew that implanting democracy in a nation that possessed anti-democratic people would be tough task. One of her rivals, the Talib an, was a Muslim extremist group that possessed ideals opposite of democracy. She states in her peace policy, An earlier military dictator used Afghanistan s critical importance to the world community to perpetuate his own dictatorship. Now another military dictator [the Taliban] is attempting to use Afghanistan to perpetuate itself at the cost of the fundamental and human rights, including economic rights, of the people of the Federation. The Taliban supported extremist rulers, oppressive rule, and Muslim law code. In order to fully implement her democratic goals, Bhutto condemned the Taliban and all of its followers from Pakistan (Benazirbhutto.org). By doing this, she would ensure political stability and convince more people to become supporters of democracy. Sadly, Bhutto never completed her goals due to her assassination in 2008, but her attempts to democratize Pakistans governments exhibited her passion to enhance Pakistan as a country. Benazir Bhutto sought to transform Pakistan from a traditional Islamic country into a westernized nation. She wanted to improve the human rights of her nation and democratize her countrys government, but due to her little time in office she was unable to effectively implement either of these goals. Although Bhutto never truly achieved all of her goals, her attempts served as an initial step for Pakistan towards the ideal direction. Her party, the Pakistans People Party, is still a forerunner in Pakistani politics. Her party has carried on her ideas and hopefully in the future, with the help of Western powers, Pakistan will become a democratic nation that supports human rights. Benazir Bhutto will always be remembered as a heroine that attempted to bring human rights and democracy to Pakistan so she could improve the lives of her citizens. Works Cited Page A Conversation With Benazir Bhutto. Council on Foreign Relations. 15 Aug. 2007. Web. 11 Apr. 2010. . BBC NEWS | South Asia | Obituary: Benazir Bhutto. BBC NEWS | News Front Page. BBC News, 27 Dec. 2007. Web. 11 Apr. 2010. Benazir Bhutto Biography Academy of Achievement. Academy of Achievement. Academy of Achievement, 4 Jan. 2008. Web. 11 Apr. 2010. Benazirbhutto.org The Official Website of PPP Chairperson Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto. Pakistan Peoples Party. 2007. Web. 15 Mar. 2010. Bhutto, Benazir (1953 ). A Dictionary of Contemporary History 1945 to the present. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. Credo Reference. Web. Boston Public Library Electronic Library. 15 March 2010. Bhuttos Mixed Legacy For Womens Rights CBS News. Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment World News CBS News. CBS, 3 Jan. 2008. Web. 16 Mar. 2010. Burns, John. Benazir Bhutto, 54, Who Weathered Pakistans Political Storm for 3 Decades, Dies. New York Times 28 December 2007. Groff, Claire Price. Bhutto, Benazir. Twentieth-Century Women Political Leaders, Global Profiles. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 1998. (Updated 2008) Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. HHS Media Center, Hingham MA. MarchÃ 15,Ã 2010. Kuhlman, Erica Ann. Benazir Bhutto, political career of. A to Z of Women in World History, A to Z of Women. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2002. (Updated 2008.) Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. HHS Media Center, Hingham MA. MarchÃ 15,Ã 2010. Ã The Independent, London. Asif Ali Zardari: My Benazirs Hopes for Democracy Can Live On If Musharraf Stands down. Pakistan Peoples Party. 6 Jan. 2008. Web. 11 Apr. 2010. . The Sad, Stormy Life Of Benazir Bhutto CBS News. Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment World News CBS News. 27 Dec. 2007. Web. 15 Mar. 2010. Wynbrandt, James. Return of civilian rule in Pakistan. A Brief History of Pakistan, Brief History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2009. Modern World History Online, Facts On File, Inc. Web. HHS Media Center, Hingham MA. MarchÃ 15,Ã 2010.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Identify all customers (both internal and external) and justify how this problem is linked to customer satisfaction. Measure phase Ã¢â¬â This phase involves trying to collect data to evaluate the current performance level of the process, and provide information for analysis and improvement phases (Yang and II-Haiku, 2009:37). Antonym (2006:240) explains that the following items should be considered during the measurement phase of the Six Sigma methodology: Determine the current performance of the service process (process yield, DEMO, short-term and long-term capability).Decide what to measure (critical-to-quality characteristic Ã¢â¬â ACT), and how to measure. Establish a simple measurement system study (if applicable). Determine how well the process is performing compared to others through benchmarking exercise. Identify the strengths and weaknesses and determine the gaps for improvement. Analysis phase -? Many authors consider this phase as the most crucial because more often, people seem to omit it and jump straight to improvement phase (Cakes, 2003:42-43).In this phase, data is analyzed in order to discover causes of the problem, and to understand how to improve the process (Yang and II-Haiku, 2009:38). The following salient points (Antonym, 2006:240) must be looked at during this phase: Uncover the root causes of defects in processes. Understand the root causes of variability which lead to defects and priorities them for further investigation. Understand the nature of data and the distribution or patterns of data. Determine the key service process variables that may be linked to defects.Financially quantify the improvement opportunity (I. E. Estimate of potential financial benefits). Improvement phase -? This phase involves generating and selecting solutions for implementation of doing things better, cheaper or faster and thereafter calculating the new sigma level (Cakes, 2003:61 The improvement phase (Antonym, 2006:240) encompasses the following issu es: Develop potential solutions to fix the problems and prevent them from recurring. Evaluate the impact of each potential solution using a criteria-decision matrix.Solutions hat have a high impact on customer satisfaction and bottom-line savings to the organization need to be examined to determine how much time, effort and capital will need to be expended for implementation. Assess risks associated with potential solutions. Validate improvement (I. E. Reduce defect rate or improve sigma quality level of the process) by pilot studies. Re-evaluate the impact of chosen potential solution. Control phase -? The purpose of this stage is to hold on to the improvement achieved from the improvement phase. Changes made in the improvement phase need to be documented (Yang and El-Haiku, 2009:38).
Sunday, November 10, 2019
This report will provide an analysis of Bayonne Packaging, Inc and its involvement in the paper packaging industry. The three most important issues facing this company are analyzed which include (i) how can Bayonne strengthen communication among departments and improve overall company culture, (ii) how will Bayonne be able to develop or improve their computerized scheduling system (iii) given BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s poor delivery performance, how can operational efficiencies be improved in terms of capacity utilization of the machines. In addition to analysis of these current issues, alternative solutions have been developed for each. The alternative that holds the strongest presence is for Bayonne to instill a strong corporate culture and ultimately strengthen communication that will allow for the company to excel in its key performance measures of cost, quality, dependability and speed. Introduction Bayonne Packaging, Inc. is currently involved in the paper packaging industry. Currently a 43 million dollar company, Bayonne has grown from 1982 when sales were just 10 million. Bayonne differentiates themselves in beingÃ a Ã¢â¬Å"specialty packagingÃ¢â¬ paper converter that produces customized, complex-design packaging that is used by industrial customers for promotional materials, software, luxury beverages, and gift food and candy. By diversifying into new markets Bayonne applied its strength in innovative and difficult packaging design and their ability to fold and glue complex blanks. The main issues facing the company are the following: (i) how can Bayonne strengthen communication among departments and improve overall company culture, (ii) how will Bayonne be able to develop or improve their computerized scheduling system (iii) given BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s poor delivery performance, how can operational efficiencies be improved in terms of capacity utilization of the machines. I t is thus crucial to fully analyze these issues more fully and examine the factors that have contributed to each in order for Bayonne to gain competitive advantage. Analysis of BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s Issues 800 I. How can Bayonne strengthen communication among departments and improve overall company culture? BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s most stressful month of October has caused delivery, cost, and quality to tank. Consequently, Bayonne has not been able to execute their strategy (see section 2.1) well and excel in key performance measures. This is due to lack of communication and coordination between the quality control, sales management, Fold and Glue, and composition departments. There are several factors that contribute to the communication issue at Bayonne. Among other weaknesses of the company such as building a reputation for late delivery and complaints from customers about quality of products (see section 2.3), communication is one of the strongest. Bayonne seems to be failing in the ten essential managerial tasks of the strategy execution process. Moreover, the lack of communication is reflected in their inability to staff the organization (see section 2.5a) as no proper training is realized and departments are working as silos rather than one unified organization. In addition, lack of communication is also causing for Bayonne to build on their organizational capabilities in specialized packaging and scheduling (see section 2.5b). Bayonne has not been able to develop a strong management team that can assess which value chain activities, for example, should be performed internally and which ones should be outsourced (see section 2.5c). The fact that orders were late moreÃ than 20% of the time in October is reflective of poor communication in the company and lack of delivery in key performance indicators (see section 2.1c). Bayonne is losing customers because of communication problems and lack of internal leadership (see section 2.5j). The work climate (see section 2.5i) has become bitter and there is no sign of a strong corporate culture, cohesiveness or collaboration, which is ultimately causing for a large misunderstanding and negative assumptions between departments. II. How will Bayonne be able to develop or improve their computerized scheduling system? BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s computerized scheduling system is viewed as useless as it reflects inaccurate information and assumptions about orders. This is causing for company personnel to not do their strategic roles as proficiently as possible and instead the individual departments are making their own decisions (see section 2.5g). Employees are questioning whether or not the scheduling system presents to be practical. The schedule that is generated twice a week by the computerized scheduling system may be a leading cause for Bayonne not being able to live up to their vision, mission, and objectives (see section 2.1A). The composition department is particularly concerned because as manager, Sean Quinn explains; between rush orders and ganging the orders to keep the machines running, he cannot afford time-wise to do what the printout says. Essentially, the schedule indicates to employees that they have an order that they have never seen or still have an order that is finished and got shipped. Inaccuracy may be the leading cause of Bayonne not being able to sustain a competitive approach in terms of their business and functional strategies. For example, one of BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategies is the importance of determining priority of orders by computing critical ratios (see section 2.1B). In addition, this system has become a weakness to the company (see section 2.3) and is also leading to customer value proposition and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cost structure to weaken, especially in secondary activities of the BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s value chain (see section 2.4, Product R&D, Technology and Systems Development) Not only is the this system causing workers to ignore printouts and raise frustration, it is causing for a lot of time wasted that could be used toward producing higher volumes of products at a level of good quality for customers. III. Given BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s poor delivery performance, how can operational efficiencies be improved in terms of capacity utilization of the machines? Since BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s highest volume month is October, the company has not been able to match capacity to its demand requirements also leading for insufficient allocation of resource that contribute to strategy execution (see section 2.5d). Evidence from the computation of machine effectiveness (see financial analysis page) indicates that the Heidelberg presses are operating at 100.29% capacity, essentially making BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s printing activity the bottleneck of the process. Consequently, this does not give the ability for Bayonne to focus on its core capability of specialized packaging (see section 2.5b) nor deliver on their key performance measures (see section 2.1). In addition, poor use of capacity utilization is also reflected in BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s decrease in producing good quality products. Producing quality products is essential in keeping customers loyal to the company and is a key success factor in this industry (see section 1.5). The Heidelberg press is slowing down subsequent activities since it can only produce a limited amount of pieces per month, which causes for limiting the inputs that are available for the Die-cut centre. BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s main resource is their wide range of machines that are supposed to be operating at efficient levels (see section 2.2). These machines are valuable because they contribute to the effectiveness of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. However, with the use of adequate capacity being questioned may be the leading cause of poor delivery performance, which is ultimately the reason that Bayonne occurred a loss in their most stressful month. Discussion of alternative solutions to the issues I. How can Bayonne strengthen communication among departments and improve overall company culture? A solution to this issue would be for Bayonne to reassess their current strategy and instill a strong corporate culture that will bring employees together (see section 2.5i). Bayonne can build on what they already have in place such as the daily production meetings. This is the only chance where employees across all departments come together face-to-face to discuss issues. Instilling a strong corporate culture has its proÃ¢â¬â¢s and cons. TheÃ main advantage is that it can create a strategy supportive organizational structure that Bayonne is currently lacking off (see section 2.5c). Another advantage is that it will also allow for internal leadership to be strengthened. Having a strong leader will set the tone and ensure everyone is working as a team. When communication is improved, Bayonne will be able to delivery on time because the departments will be working collaboratively rather than separately. The only negative to instilling a strong corporate culture is that it wont work unless employees embody the culture and take it seriously and understand that it contributes to BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s key performance indicators of cost, quality, speed and dependability. II. How will Bayonne be able to develop or improve their computerized scheduling system? An alternative solution to this issue would be for Bayonne to gain adherence to the computerized system by fixing the data that is leading to inaccuracies and introduce a pre-work order jacket. Currently, the work order jacket lists the routing, standard setup and run times, special instructions and ship-to information (see section 2.4, Distribution). If management at Bayonne work toward gaining employee loyalty to this system and introducing a pre-work order jacket based on prioritization where a report would be sent to each department before they begin working on orders and when the prior departments finishes the order, the next department would be aware of what orders are on the way within the next few days Ã¢â¬âwould contribute to proper strategy execution. However, there are some pros and cons to this issue. An advantage of introducing a pre-work order jacket and gaining loyalty of the computerized system would lead to more efficient operating levels at the facility. This will lead to decreased delays, increased quality and better time management. It would enable company personnel to do their strategic roles more proficiently as well; something that Bayonne is not currently acting upon (see section 2.5g). A con with this alternative would be the possibility of initial confusion of how exactly the new system would work. Also, some employees may simply be resistant to adhering to the computerized scheduling system even if it were to be fixed or question whether or not it would be practical enough to sustain high volumes. III. Given BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s poor delivery performance, how can operational efficiencies be improved in terms of capacity utilization of the machines? A solution in improving capacity utilization would be to make more use of the International Royal and Queen machines. Currently these machines are operating at nearly 50% capacity utilization. Since these are the fastest machines, placing important orders to them would generate higher volumes. Advantages in making these machines the main use would contribute to Bayonne excelling in their key performance indicator of speed (see section 2.1C) and improvement in functional and business strategies (see section 2.1B). The machines are only operating at 44.49% capacity utilization, which means that Bayonne is lacking in improving operational efficiencies that could drive down costs. These machines produce the most pieces at the highest speed so making use of them would be highly beneficial. The main disadvantage of this proposed alternative i s that the volume may affect profit margins of the company Ã¢â¬âa concern of president Dave Rand (see section 2.4). In addition, these machines are complex and difficult to set up which could interfere with allocation of proper time management. This may result to poorer quality Ã¢â¬â causing for Bayonne main strength in innovative package design to be diminished. Recommendation According to my analysis, Bayonne must focus on strengthening communication within the company. Bayonne has to instill a strong corporate culture and develop on internal leadership within the company. This will lead to happier more productive employees and will allow for Bayonne to build upon their organizational capabilities. In turn, strong communication will lead synchronization among the departments and employees will work as a team rather than as silos. A strong corporate culture and excellent communication will eliminate misunderstanding and frustration among departments that has been causing for Bayonne to develop a track record for late deliveries and poor quality. Ultimately, communication will be the key in BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to execute their strategy and excel in key performance measures that are crucial to the profitability in the company. Financial Analysis Overall, Net profit margin has been declining which indicates that the company has depleting cash reserves and may have difficulty paying liabilities. Gross profit margin for Bayonne is declining which may indicate that fewer funds may be available for operating expenses. Due to limited financial data in the case, other profitability ratios (i.e. operating profit margin, net profit margin, return on equity, liquidity ratios (current ratio, working capital), and leverage ratios (total debt-to-asset, debt-to-equity) have not been able to be computed. It is apparent that the Heidelberg press machine is operating at full capacity and is the bottleneck of the process. This is causing for scheduled hours to go overtime. High-speed machines such as the international royal and the international queen (only being used 44.96%) are not being fully utilized to an efficient manner, which may be the cause in late delivery and poor quality. APPENDIX 1. EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT 1.1 Ã¢â¬â PESTEL Analysis Political: n/a Environmental: severe weather conditions may have a substantial effect on this industry if these conditions were to cause a delay in the transportation process of the package Something like a power outage or blackout could interrupt the flow of the packaging process, which in turn will have an effect on sales and the customer. Sociocultural: Customers to the paper packaging industry seeking to make a greater impact with promotional materials reflects the rapid growth of this industry. Fast-paced society Ã¢â¬â want things delivered on time with no delays.(not being able to keep up rush-orders may affect sales). Technological: advancedÃ technology may cause industry profits to decline or no longer be needed (e.g. migration of software sales and distribution from CDs to the internet) Economic: if cost of materials (such as glue or paint) used to do the packaging were to rise; orders from customers may decline (important to stay strategically priced). Legal: not complying with FDA r equirements (about coatings, adhesives, and liners) could have an effect of business within this industry. Overall, the macroeconomic environment of the paper packaging industry presents a few challenges. Despite limited information given in the case on external knowledge of this industry Ã¢â¬â it seems that this industry has experienced booming growth. This industry may be challenged when it comes to diversifying into new markets if the dot-come bubble continues to burst and migration of software sales and distribution form CDs to internet were to increase. In order to survive, companies within the paper packaging company have to diversify into emerging markets and constantly innovate in design of the package or product. 1.2 Ã¢â¬â PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5F Analysis: there is no sufficient information about rivals within this industry in the case that can be applied to this framework. 1.3 Ã¢â¬â Driving Forces Regulatory influences and government policy changes Requirements set by the food and drug administration (FDA) can have an impact on costs, operational efficiencies and health and safety concerns if companies within the industry do not comply with the regulations. Product and marketing innovation Additional customer market segments have become available to this industry because of the explosive growth of software packaging and promotional material. Both these driving forces have strategic implications for competing companies in the paper packaging industry. For example, if companies within this industry do not comply with specific industry requirements then they willÃ not be able to run their business or go into financial debt. Also, it is important that this industry to diversify into emerging markets in order to compete competitively. 1.4- Strategic Group Map: no sufficient data in the case to cover this framework since the case does not talk about competitors. 1.5 Ã¢â¬â KSFÃ¢â¬â¢S Developing collaborative relationships with customers, who are closer to the end consumer Working closely with industrial customers for companies in this industry is crucial as it has an impact on sales for the company and eventually for the industrial customer. Excelling in global supply chain management Excelling in operational performance It is important to keep track of costs going in and out of the company. For example, if cost of goods sold (COGS) takes up a high percentage of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sales may indicate that the company is not performing efficiently or not earning enough revenue to comfortably run the business. Effectively managing the delivery of products while keeping costs minimized It is important for companies in this industry to develop a track record for constant on-time delivery as this will reflect in the customer being loyal to the company which will drive sales. 1.6 Industry Outlook: overall this industry is conductive of good profitability since many industrial customers need their products to be packaged properly in order to be sellable. It is therefore important to excel in cost, quality, speed, and dependability at a competitive level for companies within this industry. 2. INTERNAL ANALYSIS 2.1 How well is BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s present strategy workingÃ¢â¬â The present strategy at Bayonne is to out-compete rivals and prioritize in four key performance measures, which are quality, cost, speed, and dependability. This is mainly more of an operations strategy seeing as this company is the producer of the product that the customer sells. It is important for Bayonne to deliver on quality packaging, constantly innovate all while minimizing costs and producing high volume to remain competitive. A) Vision mission and objectives: Vision: although there is not enough sufficient data that states BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s vision; it can be assumed that based on what is given in the case, BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s vision might be along the lines of becoming the number one industry leader in specialty packaging by providing the best customer satisfaction, quality and product innovation. Mission: based on what is given in the case, BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s mission could be being committed to providing innovative solutions to difficult package design while excelling in cost, quality, and delivery. Objectives: financial objectives at Bayonne are to keep costs down as much as possible, while still delivering on quality. Strategically, Bayonne aims to excel in their key performance measure of dependability, cost, quality and speed thatÃ¢â¬â¢s embedded in their strategy. Overall, they strive in being operationally efficient. B) BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s Competitive Approach Business Strategies: Working closely with customers to ensure satisfaction and approval in the design on the package Building on competitive advantage by providing additional finishing to the package as a courtesy to the customer. Also tapping into new markets and products such as promotional material Importance of determining priority of orders by computing critical ratios (e.g. lower than 2 indicates concern for the job) Expediting the most important orders in hopes of sustaining customerÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty to the company. Functional Strategies: Ensuring quality is met by checking two pieces every hour and conducting a final inspection Ensuring that the work-order jacket travels with the job at each department Ensuring that if a full delivery cannot be made then at least getting partials out is important When orders need to be completed quickly, then this is done by Ã¢â¬Å"gangingÃ¢â¬ them up whenever possible. SalesÃ management department is focused on pricing aggressively to the market in order to sustain volumes. C) Key Performance Indicators Strategic: how Bayonne is doing in terms of their key performance measures Financial/Machine Effectiveness -Quality: quality control reports indicate that 6% of products were found defective due to glue problems, leading to an increase in customer rejects of shipped products. Finishing department has problems in including all pieces of the product. -Cost: cost of goods sold has increased, net sales have decreased from previous years, which has caused Bayonne incurring a loss in 2011. -Speed: there is a lower overall speed of delivery to customers. Machines are not being fully utilized since employees are not given the opportunity to assess which orders to run on what machine. A lot of orders that are expedited causes for a breakup to occur in production leading to extra set up time for the machines. -Dependability: Not doing well. Customers are aware of BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s inconsistency of delivering packages on time. This is reflective in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s worst month; October Ã¢â¬â where 20% orders were late. Ã¢â¬â Financially, Bayonne understands that there is a tradeoff in keeping costs down, getting good quality and hitting delivery promises. The ultimate goal is to perform financially well in all three. Ã¢â¬â BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s declining net profit margin may be indicative that cash reserves are depleting and they may have difficulty paying liabilities. Ã¢â¬â Gross profit margins have also declined possibly indicating that raw material costs have increased and manufacturing costs have gone up. Ã¢â¬â In calculating machine effectiveness, it is indicative that in the print department the Heidelberg press is the slowest of machines, which is creating a bottleneck in the process where capacity utilization is 100.29%. 2.2 Ã¢â¬â VRIN Resource: Wide Range of Machines operating at efficient levels. Capability: Specialized Packaging (includes innovative, difficult packaging design, and finishing touches) Is it Valuable? The machines pass the valuable test because they contribute to theÃ effectiveness of BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. The International Royal and International Queen are BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s most important machines that contribute to gaining operational efficiencies and added value to the customers because they operate at a high speed. BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s specialized packaging capability is very valuable and highly contributes to the effectiveness of their strategy (especially in the quality area). Since this capability is competitively valuable, Bayonne passes this test. Is it Rare? Since these are generic machines, this resource is not rare. It therefore does not pass the test since other packaging companies can invest in the same machines as long as they have the financial stability to do so. Not a lot of companies may take the time to closely work with customers in special and complex packaging design. Also adding personal finishing touches is not something a lot of other paper packaging companies take the time to do. Bayonne therefore passes the rare test. Is it Inimitable? The machines are imitable; therefore this resource does not pass the inimitable test since other companies can purchase the same machines to produce the same quality packaging. There is no uniqueness to them. Capabilities in specialized packaging design is something that other companies can copy as it is not competitively superior to potential rival companies. Bayonne does not pass the inimitable test. Is it Non-Substitutable Although Bayonne may have an efficiency advantage with their machines, it does not pass this test since potential rivals can copy the same machines and produce equally good products at lower costs by locating their plants in countries where wage rates are relatively low. Potential paper packaging industry rivals may also offer specialized packaging capabilities. This means industrial customers can pick and choose with which paper packager to partner with. Therefore, Bayonne does not pass this test. Overall, this framework presents strategic implications to Bayonne indicating that their resources and capabilities are not ones that contribute to Bayonne having a competitive advantage that is sustainable. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ resources of machines and specialized packaging capabilities present to be competitive assets to the company and are central to BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy. However, by not passing the last two tests of this analysis is indicative that Bayonne may be prone to imitative attempts and efforts from potential rivals. 2.3Ã¢â¬â SWOT Analysis Strengths Ã¢â¬â Working closely with customers Ã¢â¬â Aggressively entering into new markets Ã¢â¬â Innovative and difficult package design Ã¢â¬â Ability to fold and glue complex blanks Ã¢â¬â Ability to price aggressively Ã¢â¬â Well managed scheduling in Composition department in terms of being rarely out of stock and re-stocking quickly. Ã¢â¬â Use of High-speed machines help keep volumes high Ã¢â¬â Consistent performance from Maintenance team in running inspections and fixing something right away if it breaks down. Weaknesses Ã¢â¬â Complaints from customers about quality (concentrated in Fold&Glue) leading to defective products Ã¢â¬â Developing a bad reputation for late delivery time, which is also causing customers to lose trust in the company Ã¢â¬â Mismanagement and communication problems between departments inevitably causing orders to run late (threats coming from heads of other departments, no synchronization) Ã¢â¬â Computerized scheduling system appears useless as it conflicts with time management of rush orders Ã¢â¬â Some machines run slow despite being fast to set up (e.g. Staudes) Ã¢â¬â Data reported through the shop floor computer terminals is inaccurate Opportunities Ã¢â¬â Diversifying into emerging markets and taking on new types of customers. Ã¢â¬â Prospective money to be made in Manhattan in terms of promotional material which can lead to gaining more customers Threats Ã¢â¬â Possibility of receiving safety concerns for not complying with FDA requirements leading to overall increased costs. 2.4 Ã¢â¬â Value Chain Analysis: are the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cost structure and customer value proposition competitive? Primary activities: Supply chain management: from the limited information provided in the case, there is not much that can be said about BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain management. The most relevant fact is that BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s supplier is International Paper that helps keep the composition department stocked with the necessary materials that are used to make the products. In terms of costs in this area, according to BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s income statement Ã¢â¬â the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) significantly increased from 83.2% in September 2011 to 90.7% in October 2011. Since October is also the month in which Bayonne occurred a loss of $365,694 is indicative that the company is not performing well on the cost performing measure. Operations: Bayonne places high value in executing their operations strategy since they are responsible for producing the product itself at their facilities. The goal is to keep margins low while getting the volume. The flow of order through the production department is a system relevant to Bayonne executing their strategy. Quality assurance activities are performed at Bayonne where there are two inspectors on each shift covering the Composition, sheet, print and Die-cut, Fold&Glue, and Finishing departments as well as inspecting the shipping dock. The inspectors check the machines every hour during the production run and a final inspection is performed before the product gets shipped out. Distribution: In order to keep track of the products that Bayonne produces, heavy reliance is held in their Ã¢â¬Å"Work Order Jacket.Ã¢â¬ For example, before shipping the finished product to the industrial customer, quality control managers check the product against proof in the work order jacket. The jacket lists routing, standard setup and run times, special instructions, and ship-to-information. It also held the customers signed proof along with samples signed by operators, supervisors, and QC at each le vel. Distributing finished products to customers on time is highly important to Bayonne not losing customers; however data shows that in the month of October 2011, they were late more than 20% of the time causing customers to lose trust and expedite orders. Sales and Marketing: although there is not enough information to indicate what BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s costs, activities, and assets related to sales force efforts are Ã¢â¬â the products that Bayonne produces directlyÃ impact the end customer. For example, industrial customers who place large orders with Bayonne and pay a high price per piece; place high expectations that Bayonne deliver the product on time in correspondence to say, a promotional campaign that they are launching on a specific date. Its seems that sales management at Bayonne is not developing a good track record for on time delivery because of miscommunication going on between the departments. Also, sales management places high relevance on pricing aggressively to the market, which may conflict with profit margins of the company. Service: Bayonne provides all necessary services such as design assistance and final delivery of the package. It is important for the company to gain customer approval when developing artwork a nd package design as it directly affects profitability. This is why the sales force at Bayonne works closely with the customers showing that the company respects the important decisions that they make since these customers are the ones that make the product sell to end consumers. Profit Margin: President Dave Rand complains about margins, but not about volume. Secondary Activities Product R&D, Technology, and Systems Development: BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s strength is in innovative and difficult package design and their ability to fold and glue complex blanks. In order to remain innovative and keep volumes high; the company uses high-speed machines such as the International Royal and International Queen. Bayonne also uses a computerized scheduling system, which add up the standard set up and run hours for every order released to the plant and schedules order by priority. However, the use of the computerized scheduling system is having a negative effect in terms of order processing. Human Resources Management: Since Bayonne is mainly a family run business, there are no real HR practices in place. Employees essentially work on a Ã¢â¬Å"do what it takesÃ¢â¬ system and there are no training procedures. General administration: n/a 2.5- Ten Managerial Tasks of the Strategy Execution Process a) Staffing the Organization Bayonne Packaging began as family business and later grew into a larger organization. However, the lack of cross-functional communication may be indicative that no proper training is realized as the departments work as silos rather than one unified organization. Bayonne recognizes the importance of good upper management seeing as the old VP of operations was fired and replaced by John Milliken who has a background in general manufacturing and seems to exhibit traits of a valuable and talented employee. Since Bayonne incurred a loss in 2011; this may reflect on the fact that management is weak, and employees may not be valued as important assets that tie directly to strategy execution and gaining of competitive advantage. b) Building on Organizational Capabilities BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to manage people to gain competitive advantage is lacking. Through internal development, Bayonne can build on their scheduling capability. Since each department works in a separate manner, there is no synchronization, which interferes with orders being successfully completed. Second, BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities in specialized packaging can also be improved through internal development by having managers at the company set an objective to develop this capability and organize activity around it. Bayonne is able to differentiate themselves by possessing strength in innovation and difficult packaging design (i.e. working closely with customers in the design and adding personal touches in the finishing department) but lack of collaboration and communication in the company have resulted in operational deficiencies. c) Creating a Strategy -Supportive Organizational Structure Bayonne is not properly organizing work efforts in a strategy supportive fashion. In order to excel in the key performance measures of cost, quality, speed and dependability embedded in their strategy Ã¢â¬â they may have to reassess operational activities. A strong management team has to be built within the company in order to assess which value chain activities, for example, should be performed internally and which ones should be outsourced. Currently at Bayonne their organizational structure is not aligning with their strategy; in part due to communication problems. Also, there seems to be no delegating of authority or facilitation of necessary collaboration and coordination with external partners and strategic allies. d) Allocating Sufficient Resources to Strategic Execution Bayonne is not operating as cost-effectively as possible. Although salesÃ management may be pricing aggressively to customers by offering a high price per piece Ã¢â¬â this indirectly affects profit margins at the company. Bayonne is not using their resources (i.e. their machines) in an efficient manner. e) Instituting policies and procedures that drive strategy execution activities There are currently no policies in place at Bayonne, which may hinder good strategy execution. The work climate is not one that facilitates good strategy execution; employees are unnecessarily being yelled at, and pressured to run orders in short notice of receiving them. BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s procedure for preventing or finding defects is signing off the first good piece the operator runs and then recording it in the Work Order Jacket. However, this shows a degree of carelessness in ensuring good quality as often there is a possibility for more than only one piece being defective. Excelling in cost, quality, speed, and dependability is being compromised by lack of communication and coordination among employees when they disagree on acceptable partials and make up their own Ã¢â¬Å"rule of thumbÃ¢â¬ that is not in sync with the goals of other departments. f) Adopting best practice and business processes that drive strategy execution activities Bayonne has not adopted any benchmarking methods that would help in implementing best practices. The only common practice at Bayonne is in recognizing revenue when its billed the customer, and billing when the product is shipped. In October 2011, Bayonne was late with their deliveries more than 20% of the time, compared to 2009 with only 5%. This is affecting BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to excel in the dependability aspect of their strategy; also since customers are aware of this and consequently Ã¢â¬Ëmove upÃ¢â¬â¢ their orders g) Installing info and operating systems that enable company personnel to do their strategic roles proficiently The computerized scheduling system at Bayonne is weakening their organizational capabilities. Many employees find the scheduling system to be useless, as the printouts do not accurately reflect what has been finished and what needs to be started. Lack of accuracy and timely information about daily operations does not allow for managers to gauge how well the company is executing their strategy. h) Tying rewards and incentives directly to the achievement of strategic and financial targets There is currently no reward system in place at Bayonne. This causes for lack of motivation and engagement among staff. Employees are neglected and not encouraged for their hard work asÃ managers are only focusing on expediting orders by getting them authorized by Dave Rand. i) Instilling a corporate culture that promotes good strategy and execution There is no corporate culture in place at Bayonne. The work environment is not strong or positive. Miscommunication leads to misunderstanding among employees and even screaming. Managers are not properly guiding employees in the right direction o f how to do things right and doing the right thing Ã¢â¬â instead they are focused on their own goals in mind. For example, Wascov only focused on pricing aggressively to the market and expediting orders causing for other departments to rush orders and compromise quality which leads to the upset customers) No commonly held convictions in place of how the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business is to be conducted Ã¢â¬â instead, departments make up their own separate rules leading to incisiveness across the board. j) Exercising the internal leadership needed to propel strategy implementation forward There is no strong internal leadership in place at Bayonne resulting in lack of synergy between the departments. This is why new VP of Operations; Milliken has been put in place. He seems to be staying on top of what is happening by touring the factory and asking relevant questions to department managers in aim of propelling strategy implementation forward. Neil Rand (Dave RandÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle) is not exhibiting traits of a proper executive for Bayonne. Although he does whatever it takes to eliminate work order delays, he does this by randomly showing up and neglecting other important orders. This leads to requests for earlier finishing dates and inevitably leading to an increase in late orders. 2.6 Ã¢â¬â Strategic Issues 1.How can Bayonne strengthen communication among departments and improve overall company culture? Miscommunication seems to be occurring across different departments, which may be the cause of the increase in late deliveries in October. Lack of company culture may also be the cause in synergy and good energy within the company. 2.How will Bayonne be able to develop or improve their computerized scheduling system? This current system is causing for many inaccuracies, which leads to orders to be expedited. Lack of proper data that the system is generating is causing for unnecessary frustration among employees and quality is being compromised. 3.Given BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s poor delivery performance, how can operational efficiencies beÃ improved in terms of capacity utilization of the machines? It seems that the Heidelberg press machine is the bottleneck of the process as it is operating at full capacity, but it is unable to cope with variability in customer orders. Some machines are not be ing fully utilized which affects BayonneÃ¢â¬â¢s performance measures in speed and dependability
Friday, November 8, 2019
OUR FOOD SYSTEM Essays - Food Safety, Meat, Raw Meat, Free Essays OUR FOOD SYSTEM Group1 1 After a long hard day of work you sit down in your comfortable recliner and open up your favorite snack. But when you reach into grab a piece, you pull out a dead bug. Suddenly many thoughts come into your mind, you wonder how did the bug get there and was it dead or alive. Is it harmful or carry a disease. You ask yourself did the bug come from the United States or another country and where was your snack made? As all these questions come into your head, you wonder who can give you the answers. Fortunately, the government thought about these conflicts and established several governmental agencies to protect Americans in food safety. These agencies are responsible for inspecting, labeling, marketing, and developing modern safety systems to test foods for diseases and bacteria. They also work with the local and state governmental agencies, farmers, and companies to ensure cleaner air, safer food, and pure water to protect the health and safety of Americans. The following agencies; Center for Disease Control (CDC), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are the most significant federal agencies to help consumers make better choices in the products they buy. All of them have a particular role in food safety, and by working together they make the foods we buy safer for consumption. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is a government agency that was formed in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln. The purpose of forming the agency was to promote the rise of commercial farming. Many other Acts dealing with agriculture were drawn up over the years and eventually in 1939 the New Department of Agriculture was formed. President Franklin D. Roosevelt pushed the reform of the department through because of the Great Depression was having such a great effect on the farming industry. The new Department was formed from all of the Acts and old organizations within the Department and from the exit of a few agencies out of the Department. The United States Department of Agriculture in which we look at today has grown and evolved into a much more direct and consumer friendly government agency. The duties of the USDA is to research, regulate, and educate. The U.S. is always researching new farming techniques and different farming products that are involved in the whole process. They also regulate all farming products, to make sure that they are safe for the consumption by you and I. There are thousands of inspectors across the U.S. regulating the farms and factories in which the food is sold to. Another duty of the USDA is to educate and inform the public of food safety. Because of the scares of improperly prepared food, the USDA must inform the public of different diseases that can be found in foods, especially meat and poultry supplies. They ensure that the food is safe, wholesome, unadulterated, and properly labeled and packaged. The way in which they do so is hire thousands of inspectors and veterinarians conduct slaughterhouse inspections of all carcasses for diseases and other abnormalities. They also conduct processing inspections at plants to ensure proper sanitation and cleanliness. The USDA must also look at the imported food products because of the import-export inspection system. The U.S. has one of, if not the safest food production in the world, so we must regulate everything that comes into the country. Just recently, there was a great example of how great our government is, even with the many shortcomings. President Clinton promised great changes in the inspection Group 1 2 process of the nation's meat and poultry. On October 7, 1997 President Clinton and Congress passed a bill calling for the increase in meat and poultry inspections and production. This was caused by the big scare this past summer, the outbreak of E coli bacteria in millions of hamburger meat, in a couple of fast-food chains. The inspection process will increase gradually over the next few years. Even though the inspection process has greatly improved, this still does not make it 100% guaranteed that there will not be small cases of outbreaks. The USDA urges you to make sure you
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
In an Age of Violence essays School shootings in Moses Lake, Washington; West Paducah, Kentucky; Jonesboro, Arkansas; and Littleton, Colorado spark some serious questions throughout the US today. Schools beefing up security all over the country strive to protect their children from these horrific acts. Schools hire guards, put in metal detectors and surveillance cameras, search through students personal belongings, and even bring in trained police dogs to counteract these violent events. This added security cant be the best solution for the problem, and parents and teachers obtain a false sense of security. Schools should take a more cool-headed approach and not turn schools of today prisons of tomorrow. Society needs to take less drastic measures and step back to look at the problem before blindly trying to fix it. Not all of these hard-nosed attempts to stop school violence have been rationally thought out. School districts driven by fear rely on faster and cheaper fixes; hence the drug dogs, cameras, a nd searches. Adults always tell their children they want them to have responsibility, but by putting up all these restrictions and security measures their responsibility is stripped. Schools use heavy-handed law enforcement tactics out of fear. Its not only that, they also use these tactics against students who do nothing wrong. This interrupts the academic process and students feel like criminals in these restricted fortresses of learning. Statistics show these additional security measures are not necessary. One of these statistics states since 1992 there have been 82 children killed in school shootings. This number sounds large but when you look at the 99 children that were killed when an automobiles air bag was deployed the number doesnt seem as great. (Deaths) School shootings account for less than one percent of the more than 5,000 firearm related deaths of children under the age of nineteen each ye...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
DB 1 - History - Essay Example The Enlightenment made the United States to become democratic; people had the right to choose leaders as well as judges to enforce laws. The freedom of choice as a result of the movement also made the citizens of America to become economically viable. The Enlightenment ideas played very significant roles during the American Revolution as well as the War for Independence. Deism for instance enhanced the unification of the citizens of America. This is evidenced by the majority of the populace who not only remained strongly religious, but also supported good work. It is the religion that was enhanced by the movement that holds the citizens of the U.S. together even currently. Liberalism is also one of the Enlightenment ideas that led to the American Revolution as well as War for Independence (May, 1978). This is evidenced by JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s draft Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of IndependenceÃ¢â¬ . The Enlightenment made the citizens of the U.S. to develop the notion that government authority is not absolute, but a product of the consent of the governed. Ã¢â¬Å"It is liberalism that also supported the parliamentary form of government that protected liberty of expression and movementÃ¢â¬ (May, 1978). Republicanism is also one of the Enli ghtenment ideas. It advocated a nation to be ruled as a republic and not through hereditary right. Its effect is also evident today; the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s head in the U.S. are
Friday, November 1, 2019
Cash, Color, and Colonialism by Renee Ann Cramer - Review - Essay Example In an examination of the actual process of recognition, Cramer argues that economic, social, cultural, and political aspects strongly influence the recognition of Native American peoples. More particularly, she claims that the colonial relationship between Native Americans and the White people, issues of race, and gaming interests largely influence the decision of the BAR to approve or reject an application. The discourse on federal Indian regulation and tribal political law has primarily been the area of concern of legal scholars. This issue, as argued by Cramer, is complex, puzzling, and conflicting. There are a huge number of Native American tribes that have been granted official recognition by the federal government, and every period has its own language, legacy, and history. Not like other U.S. governments, tribal administrations do not have legal foundation; thus, they have been traditionally viewed by the federal government as self-governing dependent entities, government districts, and foreign units. All of these aspects have resulted in the marginalization of Native American peoples. Official recognition by the federal government is the crucial aspect in the success of Native American peoples in preserving its ancestral domain, economy, heritage, and autonomy. Without official recognition, an ethnic group will remain unidentified, despite heritage. Within the framework of federal Indian law, official recognition creates an agreement between the American government and Native American tribes. This agreement grants several privileges to the tribes, such as gaming rights and reclamation rights. But several ethnic groups have not been officially recognized. This fact encouraged Cramer to comprehensively examine the bureaucratic process of federal recognition, situating her analysis in a broader cultural, legal, and historical perspective. She believes that the process of federal recognition can only be correctly
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Jefferson Davis on pursuit for happiness - Essay Example Thomas Jefferson described life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as Ã¢â¬Å"inherentÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"inalienableÃ¢â¬ , or in other words, natural and undeniable rights (Jefferson and Peterson, 7). Jefferson wanted the Thirteen Colonies to form a government that protected the right of life. At the time this meant protecting citizens of the Colonies from war and Native Americans, but has come to mean much more. Americans have the right to procreate or not. Individuals are not limited to how many children they have like in China. Life is not terminated for lack of funding, like in Nazi Germany. The United States protects American lives worldwide from JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s time up until today. The second natural or undeniable right was liberty. Liberty is sometimes confused with freedom. True freedom is anarchy, because everyone does what they want. Liberty is the freedom to have the same opportunities as everyone else, obey natural laws. An example would be the freedom to worship God, Allah, or Jehovah anyway a person feels the need to. Jefferson spoke Ã¢â¬Å"of liberty to worship our Creator in the way we think is most agreeable to his willÃ¢â¬ (Jefferson and Peterson, 19). Liberty means equality for everyone. At the time Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, he owned slaves. This contradicted his position on equal opportunity for everyone. When he spoke of liberty, Jefferson meant white men. Jefferson knew that the democracy he was fighting for was far from perfect, but could become better by always changing. Jefferson stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢The price of freedom,Ã¢â¬â¢ as Thomas Jefferson observed, Ã¢â¬Ëis eternal vigilanceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Washburne). Through eternal vigilance, the United States has more liberty today than in JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s day. Natural laws are laws that come natural to humans. Most individuals think thievery, murder, rape, and torture is wrong. On the other hand, most individuals believe taking care of children, labor,