Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Jefferson Davis on pursuit for happiness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Jefferson Davis on pursuit for happiness - Essay Example Thomas Jefferson described life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as â€Å"inherent† and â€Å"inalienable†, or in other words, natural and undeniable rights (Jefferson and Peterson, 7). Jefferson wanted the Thirteen Colonies to form a government that protected the right of life. At the time this meant protecting citizens of the Colonies from war and Native Americans, but has come to mean much more. Americans have the right to procreate or not. Individuals are not limited to how many children they have like in China. Life is not terminated for lack of funding, like in Nazi Germany. The United States protects American lives worldwide from Jefferson’s time up until today. The second natural or undeniable right was liberty. Liberty is sometimes confused with freedom. True freedom is anarchy, because everyone does what they want. Liberty is the freedom to have the same opportunities as everyone else, obey natural laws. An example would be the freedom to worship God, Allah, or Jehovah anyway a person feels the need to. Jefferson spoke â€Å"of liberty to worship our Creator in the way we think is most agreeable to his will† (Jefferson and Peterson, 19). Liberty means equality for everyone. At the time Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, he owned slaves. This contradicted his position on equal opportunity for everyone. When he spoke of liberty, Jefferson meant white men. Jefferson knew that the democracy he was fighting for was far from perfect, but could become better by always changing. Jefferson stated, â€Å"’The price of freedom,’ as Thomas Jefferson observed, ‘is eternal vigilance’† (Washburne). Through eternal vigilance, the United States has more liberty today than in Jefferson’s day. Natural laws are laws that come natural to humans. Most individuals think thievery, murder, rape, and torture is wrong. On the other hand, most individuals believe taking care of children, labor,

Monday, October 28, 2019

Self-Reflective Essay Essay Example for Free

Self-Reflective Essay Essay Coming into college I knew writing was my main weakness. It was something in school that no matter how hard I worked at it I just never seemed to get the hang of it. I knew USEM focused on writing, reading, and speaking, so I was very eager to get the opportunity to better my writing skills with a university professional. I feel that over the year my writing skills have vastly improved and I truly am excited to see where I will be in the coming years. With my first assignment analyzing the picture of food I was honestly stuck on where to even begin. It was so difficult for me to find remotely anything to start writing about and I was stuck. I struggled through the short paper and I feel the end product was quite unsatisfactory. When it comes to the diagnostics we do from class to class I feel like I have vastly improved and I am so happy about that. In regards to my speaking skills I feel I posses a very high ability to speak in front of people. I’m a very social person and I don’t have a problem talking in front of people. Ironically, until the age of about 14 I was terrified to talk in front of people at all. I have truly worked on it to work out that fear behind me. Knowing that speaking is one of my strengths, I still look forward to improving my writing skills throughout next term and the remainder of the year. I feel like my participation in the class was quite good. When it came to our impromptu presentations I was always one of the first to go and I was always engaged in everybody else’s presentation. I respect the views of my classmates on all issues. I really enjoy taking my standing on a topic and comparing it to those around me and seeing why they look at it from that angle. I was on time to every class except one day and I was sick. I don’t like missing classes because being behind is one of the worst things in my  opinion. In coming terms I need to improve on getting extra help outside of class. I didn’t utilize office hours as often as I should and I need to work on that. I know that it is very helpful and I need to truly begin to take advantage of that help as I feel like it will give me the push I need to take my education to the next level. That is my biggest goal in coming terms and I feel like if I can accomplish that, I will have no problems with participation in this course. So far I feel like I have been decently successful in college. My ability to turn in assignments and get them in on time has improved greatly from high school and I am so happy about that. I understand that as soon as I am able to reach out to Solly outside of class I should be set on the right track to truly being successful in college and I truly cannot wait to see the progress I make in the coming terms.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Discus Ring Essay -- Observation Essay, Descriptive Essay

The Discus Ring There is a place in my mind that none other is equal to. This place holds the dreams of so many; it grants the wishes of so few. Although hope can persevere through so many trials and tribulations, this place can crush hope in less than an instant. When there is the realization that hope has been mangled, that a person can be or has been defeated, this place may choose to reestablish that person's dignity and pride in the next instantor it may not. This place is the discus ring. Its occupants often call it "the ring". It is a small, square slab of concrete placed at the vertex of a precise angle. There is a white circle painted on the cement. Though it seems simple, this is the most complex piece of equipment and the biggest challenge in an athlete's life. Looking from an athlete's eyes, a person could see the world from the ring. Just spending time there could equally duplicate everything of importance that has ever been taught to them. Things like pride, disappointment, and responsibility to others as well as you are learned in this six by six-foot squa...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Education Governance in Bangladesh Essay

This traditional thinking of education as the ticket to the good life emerges in different ways and degrees in Bangladesh. Education is seen as something that is received rather than achieved and it has increasingly become dependent on certificates. Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. The Government of Bangladesh places great importance on education and in this regard the Government has been trying to transform its huge population into human resource. Education for All (EFA) is the constitutional responsibility of the government. The constitution affirms equal rights in education for all. Since independence every government had taken several steps to increase the literacy rate in Bangladesh. But did they really work out? Our neighbor countries like India, Srilanka have made a great progress in literacy rate. But, where as the current literacy rate of Bangladesh is 63. 8 %. If all the steps were successfully implemented, then the rate would be around 80% (daily Janakantho, 24 July, 10). So, here is short description about the whole education system and the role of government in Bangladesh. Governance: Although the term governance is often used synonymously with the term government it tends rather to be used to describe the processes and systems by which a government or governor operate. The term government and governor describe the institutions and people involved. According to the World Bank†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Governance is â€Å"the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised for the common good. This includes (i) the process by which those in authority are selected, monitored and replaced, (ii) the capacity of the government to effectively manage its resources and implement sound policies, and (iii) the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them. According to the UNDP†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. â€Å"Governance is the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage a nation’s affairs. It is the complex mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights and obligations, and mediate their differences. † Education Governance: Education governance is concerned with how the funding, provision, ownership and regulation of education and training systems is coordinated, and at what level; local, regional, national and supranational. It is government who play the most significant role in coordinating education, the distribution of these responsibilities has been changing in response to calls for greater efficiency, effectiveness, accountability and democracy. Households, communities, and new kinds of private actors, are increasingly involved in many different aspects of education and training governance, raising questions about equity, participation and transparency. Objectives of Education Governance: To inspire and create enthusiasm among the learners in their thoughts, deeds and daily life to establish moral, humanitarian, religious, cultural and social values in personal as well as in national life. †¢ To develop awareness in the learners to protect the independence, sovereignty and integrity of Bangladesh. †¢ To make education pragmatic, productive and creative with a view to bringing about changes in the socio-economic conditions of the country and making the students into a dutiful and responsibl e manpower with scientific outlook and help them develop the qualities of leadership. To give special emphasis on primary and secondary education with a view to expanding education, to instill respect and eagerness for physical labor and enable the learners acquire vocational education for self-employment in all stages of education. †¢ To promote fraternity, moral values, generosity and fellow-feeling in people and make them respectful of human rights. †¢ To promote democratic values through fostering tolerance of one another’s views and help develop life-oriented, realistic and positive attitude for blossoming democratic awareness. To ensure proper quality at every level of education; to strengthen and widen the knowledge, skills and attitude acquired in the previous stage (in accordance with various aims and objectives of education): to enable acquisition of new knowledge and skills and to encourage people to contribute in the system of education, especially in th e field of primary, secondary and vocational education. †¢ To emancipate the country from the curse of illiteracy. †¢ To create equal opportunities for education in accordance with merit and aptitude for the purpose of building a society free from disparity. To ensure gender parity in education and remove barriers of caste, creed and ethnicity in obtaining education. †¢ To ensure constitutional guarantee at all levels of education. †¢ To create awareness about protection of environment. Structure of Education sector in Bangladesh: The education system in Bangladesh is characterized by co-existence of three separate streams. The mainstream happens to be a vernacular based secular education system carried over from the colonial past. There also exists a separate religious system of education. Finally, based on use of English as the medium of instruction, another stream of education, modeled after the British education system, using the same curriculum, has rapidly grown in the metropolitan cities of Bangladesh. However diverse the above streams may apparently look, they have certain common elements, and there exists scope for re-integration of graduates of one stream with the other at different levels. Different Streams in Education The mainstream education system in Bangladesh is structured as follows: – a. One or two year pre-primary education imparted in private schools/kindergartens, and informally in government primary schools for six months. b. Five-year compulsory primary education for the 6-10 year age group, imparted mainly in government and non-government primary schools. In metropolitan cities, however, government and non-government primary schools cater to the educational needs only of the poorer sections of the people, as the better-off families usually send their children to Private English Medium schools/ secondary schools that run primary sections as well. Very few NGOs however impart education for the full 5-year primary education cycle. c. On completion of primary education, students (11+) enroll for junior secondary education that spans over 3 years. At the end of this phase of education, some students branch out to join the vocational stream, offered at Vocational Training Institutes (VTI) and Technical Training Centers (TTC) run by the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Labor and Employment respectively, while students in the mainstream continue in government and non-government secondary schools for a 2 year secondary education in their respective areas of specialization i. . humanities, science, commerce, etc. At the end of their secondary education, the students sit for their first public examination (S. S. C. ) under the supervision of six education boards. The students of religious education and English medium streams also sit for their respective public examinations, Dakhil, and O level, conducted by the Madrasah Educ ation Board, and London/Cambridge University respectively, facilitated by the British Council in case of the latter. d. After 10 years of schooling at primary and secondary level, students (16+) who succeed in passing the Secondary School Certificate (S. S. C. ) examination have the option of joining a college for a 2 year higher secondary education in their respective areas of specialization, or enroll in technical/ poly technical institutes for technical education. After 2-year higher secondary education, one has to sit for another public examination called Higher Secondary Certificate (H. S. C. ) Examination conducted by the Education Boards to qualify for further education. Students of Religious and English Medium streams also sit for their respective public examinations, Alim, and ‘A’ level, conducted by the Madrasah Education Board and London/Cambridge University respectively to qualify for further education. e. Under-graduate education of various duration (2 to 4 years) are offered to 18+ students at a number of public and private universities / degree colleges/technical colleges/ specialized institutions. Successful completion of a degree course is a pre-requisite for appointment to a white-collar civilian job. . Post-graduate education normally of 1-2 year duration is provided at universities and selected degree colleges and institutions. Key Organizations governing the education sector in Bangladesh: Many organizations are involved in the direction of higher education in Bangladesh, and there is no single overarching authority. The President of Bangladesh is the Chancellor of most of the universities and is responsible for the appoint ment of vice-chancellors. The Prime Minister is Chancellor of a limited number of universities. To reduce the burden on the universities, the NU was established to take over and organize the affiliated colleges in all fields except agriculture, engineering and medicine. The Bangladesh Institutes of Technology (BIT) Council (CBIT) co-ordinates the activities of the four engineering colleges that enroll around 3,200 students. It has virtually the same functions as the UGC, only for the institutes of technology. The Association of Universities of Bangladesh (AUB) co-ordinates the activities of universities in both academic and administrative matters. The AUB also leases with the government and the UGC on administrative and financial affairs. Management of the education sector in Bangladesh: Pre-primary education, generally recognized as a useful stage of education to smoothen the transition from home to an institutional environment and thereby contributing to reduced drop out rates at primary level has so long remained outside the purview of official education policy of Bangladesh. Its management therefore lies at present exclusively in the hands of the schools imparting such education and some NGOs running such schools. The Education Policy 2010 did however recognize the need for pre-primary education and recommended its gradual introduction to 5+ children in primary schools with a view to universalizing one-year pre-primary education. As provision of universal compulsory primary education has been recognized by the Constitution of Bangladesh as a state responsibility, the government has assumed direct responsibility of the management of primary education in Bangladesh, particularly in the wake of enactment of Compulsory Primary Education Act in 1990. The overall responsibility of management of primary education lies with the Primary and Mass Education Division (PMED) set up as a separate Division with the status of a Ministry in 1992. While the PMED is involved in formulation of policies, the responsibility of implementation of the same rests with the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) headed by a Director General. The different tiers of administration such as Divisions, Districts and Upazilas are manned by Deputy Directors, District Primary Education Officers (DPEO) and Upazila Education Officers (UEO) respectively. UEOs are assisted by a number of AUEOs each in charge of a cluster of primary schools. At the school level, there exist School Management Committees (SMC) formed as per government directives with certain well defined functions, and Parent Teachers Associations (PTA) playing a supportive role in building favorable teaching-learning environment in schools. The Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) and its subordinate offices in the district and upazila are solely responsible for management and supervision of primary education. Their responsibilities include recruitment, posting, and transfer of teachers and other staff; arranging in-service training of teachers; and distribution of free text books, and supervision of schools. The responsibility of school construction, repair and supply of school furniture lies with the Facilities Department (FD) and Local Government Engineering Department (LGED). The National Curriculum and Text Book Board (NCTB) is responsible for the development of curriculum and production of textbooks. While the Ministry of Education (MOE) is responsible for formulation of policies, the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) under the Ministry of Education is responsible for implementing the same at secondary and higher education level. The NCTB is responsible for developing curriculum, and publishing standard textbooks. Seven regions based Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) are responsible for conducting the two public examinations, S. S. C. and H. S. C. , in addition to granting recognition to non-government secondary schools. DSHE is divided into eight zones, each in charge of a Deputy Director assisted by two Inspectors, and two Assistant Inspectors. District Offices are headed by District Education Officers (DEO). There exist three different levels of supervision. BISEs are responsible for accreditation of non-government secondary schools. However, because of lack of inspection capacity, the work is delegated to Zonal Inspectors and DEOs. The Directorate of Inspection and Audit of MOE with a small manpower of 24 Inspectors are responsible for periodic qualitative and quantitative evaluation of non-government schools. Each zone has two Inspectors and two Assistant Inspectors to inspect all schools covered by the zones. At the school level, in case of non-government secondary schools, School Management Committees (SMC), and at the intermediate college level in case of non-government colleges, Governing Bodies (GB), formed as per government directives, are responsible for mobilizing resources, approving budgets, controlling expenditures; and appointing and disciplining staff. In government secondary schools there does not exist any SMC. The Head Master s solely responsible for running the school and is supervised by the Deputy Director of the respective zone. PTAs however exist essentially for ensuring a better teaching learning environment. The Directorate of Technical Education (DTE) is responsible for planning, development and implementation of technical and vocational education in the country. Universities in Bangladesh are autonomous bodies administered by statutory bodies such as Syndicate, Se nate, Academic Council etc. in accordance with provisions laid down in their respective Acts. While the private universities are regulated by the University Grand Commission (UGC). Regulation/Licensing authority Under the President’s Order No. 10 of 1973, which established the UGC, the UGC has the right to visit the public universities or to have them visited by teams of experts as and when necessary for evaluating programs and assessing their needs and requirements. The establishment of a private university requires the formation of a non-profit corporation or foundation and the Private Universities Act stipulates a series of conditions for establishing a private university. Some of them are given below: †¢ A security deposit of Taka 50 million in interest-bearing government bonds. Transnational Report – Case Study: Bangladesh (October 2003) page 18 of 36 †¢ A minimum of two faculties. †¢ Permission to rent office space only for 5 years, before building their own campus. They should own land of at least five acres. †¢ Programs and courses to be offered must be approved by the UGC before students are admitted. †¢ Five percent of places must be reserved for free studentships to ‘poor but meritorious’ students. Following establishment, the UGC has the authority to periodically monitor, visit and evaluate the performance of private universities, regarding the numbers of qualified teachers, library books, facilities, approved curricula, and to recommend de-certification if institutions fail to perform according to agreed-upon standards. The National University reviews and approves the applications of all degree col leges that seek Government recognition. Applications are reviewed against minimum criteria for facilities, teaching staff, and library and laboratory facilities. Approval must be reaffirmed for all institutions each year and institutions can be de-affiliated. Guidelines of Ministry of Education: †¢ Human resource development is at the core of Bangladesh’s development efforts and access to quality education is critical to poverty reduction and economic development. The Government is committed to undertaking structural reforms that are expected to bring significant improvements in the education sector. Bangladesh’s commitment to education has been clearly stated in its Constitution and development plans with education being given the highest priority in the public sector investments. Education sector allocations are currently about 2. 3 percent of GDP and 14 percent of total government expenditure. Maintaining this commitment to the education sector is imperative in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). †¢ The management of the education system falls under two ministries – the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME, responsible for primary education and mass literacy) and the Ministry of Education (MoE, responsible for secondary, vocational and tertiary education). Overall there are more than 17 million students at the primary level, and over 8. 0 million at the secondary level. Enrolments at the tertiary level are relatively small but growing very rapidly. †¢ Bangladesh has made significant progress, especially in regard to increasing access and gender equity, both at primary and secondary levels. Gross primary enrollment rates rose from 90 percent in the late 1990s to 98 percent in 2003, while a corresponding increase in enrollment rates at the secondary level rise to 44 percent. Gender parity in access to primary and secondary education has also been achieved. These achievements are particularly spectacular when compared to countries in the South Asia region and other countries at similar levels of per-capita income. †¢ The Government is strongly committed to alleviating the existing problems in respect of management and quality through reforms across the education system. At the primary level, MoPME is supported by a multi-donor group through the Primary Education Development Program II (PEDP II), which aims to strengthen educational access, quality and efficiency. In order to address issues at the secondary and higher levels, MoE has developed a medium-term framework for the secondary education sub-sector, focusing on quality improvements, policy measures and specific actions needed to reform the system. The development of this medium-term framework has benefited from an extensive range of consultations and workshops with stakeholders at the central, district, and upazila levels. The main objective of reforms being proposed is to address systemic governance issues aimed at raising the quality and cost-effectiveness of service delivery, and improve equity of access in secondary education. †¢ MoE is aiming to move towards a devolved system of governance within the current administrative structure. In this system the central government will be responsible for formulating policies, financing, setting quality standards, and monitoring and evaluation etc. , while lower levels of government will be responsible for administering the system. MoE is empowering officials at the district and upazila levels to take greater responsibility in monitoring school performance and ensure public disclosure of information (e. g. , SSC passing rates, teacher absenteeism, class sizes, etc. ) related to school quality. †¢ To ensure appropriate financial controls, MoE is implementing a Financial Management Reform Program (FMRP). This is intended to increase accountability and transparency in the use of resources Main laws governing education in Bangladesh: The legal basis for higher education is complicated, with some laws deriving from colonial time sand others from the Pakistan era. There may be fundamental change in the governance and administration of higher education in the near future (World Bank, 1999b). Currently, the universities have autonomy (by the parliamentary acts) to work within the UGC-given parameters, and the same is true for degree colleges under the NU. Public Universities Ordinance (1973) is the governance framework for public universities in Bangladesh.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Hate Crimes in America Essay

How serious should the threat of a hate crime be taken? According to Ellis Cose, the African American author of Ignore the Noose Makers, to pay too much attention to the idiocy of those who hang nooses simply to intimidate their black target, â€Å"is to grant them an importance they do not deserve.† Nooses have a horrific history associated with them. They are known to be used in lynching (punishing people for crimes by private citizens without trial, whether they are guilty or not), of which three quarters of the cases in American history were against blacks. George Curry, another African American author of Calling Nooses What They Are – Terrorism, feels strongly that these threats are not to be taken lightly, and with that attitude people will not be able to â€Å"bridge the racial divide.† The American people are protected from hate crimes and verbal threats, and the hanging of a noose is a threat in itself of which their victims deserve protection from. The fact that Congress recognizes crimes motivated by bias as more serious than the crime committed alone is not in question. â€Å"Congress has passed the Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act, which increases penalties for some federal crimes when they are motivated by bias.† The debate is whether or not these laws should be applied to the widespread appearance of nooses since 2007, when the treatment of the â€Å"Jena 6† received nationwide press coverage. Nooses were hung in a tree at Jena High School in Jena, Louisiana, which caused racial tensions to escalate over the months following August 2006, after the principle was overruled when he recommended expelling the students found responsible for the outrage. A black student was attacked in November by a mob of white students, of which one member of the group was charged with battery and released on probation. In turn, a white student was attacked after taunting the victim of the previous beating. But the black students did not get off so easy. They were charged with attempted second-degree murder. American courts need to use this as a prime example of how a so-called â€Å"cry for attention† can escalate into serious, harmful chaos. Webster’s Dictionary defines lynching as â€Å"the practice of punishing men for crimes by private unauthorized persons, without a legal trial . . . to inflict punishment without forms of law, as by a mob.† There were many different forms of lynching, all of which are traumatic and unjust; one may be whipped, shot, mutilated, dragged behind cars, or burned alive. The most popular choice, though, were public hangings. This is where the noose comes in as a powerful symbol of the horrible way in which African Americans suffered at the hands of their racist white captors, most notably the Ku Klux Klan. It is unfair to claim that the hanging of a noose is anything short of a potential hate crime. According to law, it is not illegal for people to hang nooses on their own private property, or to display any other negative distaste for a minority group based on their religion, sex, political status, race, or other affiliation. The police cannot force a person to remove any of their personal expressions of opinion and to attempt to do so would be an obstruction of their constitutionally protected right to freedom of speech. If someone goes outside their private property and hangs a noose in a public area, or the private property of another citizen without their permission, the law has every right to remove it and the individuals may be sued by the person whom is being â€Å"attacked†. There are some who believe a â€Å"hate crime† should not hold a more severe sentence than the crime in itself; that a person should not be singled out for beating up a black man because they are black anymore than they should receive punishment for assault and battery alone. But hanging a noose on someone’s doorknob should be taken into account as a serious threat that deserves attention and investigation. Who is to say which of these intimidations are for a sick, twisted laugh and which are real threats which will be followed soon after with action? There are two solid points in the debate between Ignore the Noose Makers and Calling Nooses What They Are – Terrorism. The intelligent people in America realize that on the other side of the spectrum there are the ignorant, biased individuals who hang nooses for a laugh. To ignore these people is to deprive them of a learning experience capable of making them understand the impact of their actions on others. There can be no true racial equality until all hate crimes are taken seriously and people are educated on the history behind the props they use in them. It is difficult to make the call as to whether or not the threat possibly associated with hanging a noose will manifest itself into reality. Still, everyone would rather feel safe than sorry. Works Cited Patterns for College Writing: A Rhetorical Reader and Guide. Ed. Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Patricide Essays - Fatherhood, Homicide, Family, Patricide

Patricide Essays - Fatherhood, Homicide, Family, Patricide Patricide In the time of the Romans, the punishment for patricide was to be sewn up in a sack that had a monkey, snake, rooster, and dog inside, and then to be thrown in a river. Each of the animals in the bag had some specific meaning to them, and being sewn up in a sack and tossed into the river also had a specific function to the murderer. Thus this punishment became the proper way to punish the guilty. In the Roman era, patricide had become a major problem, so it was decided that for whomever held a title in Rome, there would be a meeting to discuss how to get rid of the problem and punish appropriately. The title holders decided that the best way to punish the young men, and to stop them from thinking of committing the sin, was to make them die, as well as make them feel everything their father had, and to regret their crime. This decision then became the chosen consequence for the crime of patricide. The significance of the animals was to torture the perpetrator in a particular way for his crime. The importance of the snake was that the snake was evil, dating back to the Garden of Eden, where it posed as the Devil and deceived Eve. While the victim was alive, the snake would be there to remind him of the ultimate sin-the deception of one?s own father. The rooster is primarily known for his crowing, and thus his crows would remind the sinner of his guilt, so that he couldn?t escape from what he did. The dog?s function in the sack would be to howl, not only to be deafening and frightening, but also to evoke the wrath of the gods upon him. The monkey represents torture, because it is capable of mimicking human actions. It would mimic the son?s behavior and re-enact the murder of the son?s All four of these animals perform at least one role in torturing the boy, and so that he would be forced to think about what he had done to his father. The purpose of the sack was to increase tenfold the agony which his father suffered, and also to make him regret his decision to kill his father. With each passing moment, the torment would get progressively worse, so that the boy would get a taste of the Hell that was to be his afterlife, as punishment for committing patricide. The sack represented a way in which to make the boy suffer much more, and quickly before he drowned. The son was thrown into the river so that he could feel the way his father?s panic when he killed him. The water would serve to scare the son in the way his father felt when he realized that his own son had turned on him. The sewn sack would prevent the son?s escape so he would realize there would be no turning back from his actions. These different elements of punishment combined to make the murderer truly suffer each aspect of the crime through the torture. The closed sack with animal reminders of different aspects of the murder would serve as a deterrent to living observers. This ritual is a fitting punishment for the crime.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Bob Seger, James Brown, and Bruce Springsteen Common Music Elements Essays

Bob Seger, James Brown, and Bruce Springsteen Common Music Elements Essays Bob Seger, James Brown, and Bruce Springsteen Common Music Elements Paper Bob Seger, James Brown, and Bruce Springsteen Common Music Elements Paper Name: Lecturer: Course: Date: Bob Seger, James Brown, and Bruce Springsteen Common Music Elements Bob Seger released several albums in his music career from 1968 through 1975. In the course of this period, Seger was considered a classic in the Midwest, Michigan, and Detroit. It was until Seger’s decision to incorporate the Silver Band as his backing group did he begin to achieve artistic and commercial success at a greater level[1]. The closest comparisons to Bob Seger and his work are probably James Brown and Bruce Springsteen. All three artists have similar gravelly voices I addition to the fact that all have featured back up bands in their respective music careers. Moreover, the bands behind the three rock artists featured similar instruments in their performances. These instruments include guitars, saxophones and keyboards[2]. Another similarity between the three rock artists revolves around their innocence and energy of early rock music at a period when other popular rock artists were becoming affected and jaded. Bob Seger is also known for his empathy and brilliant ability to jubilate crowds when performing live as is the same with James Brown and Bruce Springsteen. In addition, all three artists are motivated by real people and experiences when doing their work, in a manner stripping away romantic illusions. Other distinct details between the three artists are that Bruce Springsteen possesses a typical flair represented by extreme dramatics coming from growing up in New York[3]. On the other hand, both Seger and Brown do not necessarily display typical flairs from their respective roots[4]. Both Springsteen and Brown have a knack of displaying poetic inventive lyrics. Their works are more often perceived to sound like poetry but in a musical format. However, Seger produces music that is supposed to be sung. Take for example a line from Seger’s song â€Å"Against the Wind†, â€Å"Wish I didn’t know now what I didn’t know then,† from â€Å"Against the Wind.† However, these words are seemingly awkward as words on a page, but the line portrays this song beautifully as a heartfelt conversation. In fact, this line featured so well in the song that Seger confessed to receiving positive response from his fans. Comparing these three artists requires realization of the artistry degree for their seemingly conversational songs, much like daily lines expressed by people in their normal routines. What makes Seger, Brown, and Springsteen rich in the rock industry is the combination of deeply felt emotion and sensational honesty. Many of their best songs are retrospective, glancing at the past with a comparison of how life used to be and the way it is now. Take for example the song â€Å"Night Moves† by Bruce Springsteen. The song begins with a recollection of Bruce’s relationship adventures in his younger years. Springsteen in the song is honest about how the relationship nature of his youthful time and how it is today. As he says, â€Å"We weren’t in love, oh no, far from it. We were not searching for some pie in the sky summit. We were just young, restless and bored†¦.† Take for example another song by James Brown â€Å"Lost Someone†, where he uses lyrics sensationalizing past events. However, he is unfeeling and callous about his youthful times. As Brown recalls, â€Å"We felt the lightning, and we waited on the thunder, waited on the thunder!† At this point, Brown’s voices exhibits a rise in crescendo peaking at the mention of thunder. The music then fades and Brown goes on quietly and conversationally, â€Å"I awoke last night to the sound of thunder. How far off? I sat and wondered. Started humming a song from 1962. Ain’t it funny how the night moves†¦When you just don’t seem to have as much to lose? Ain’t it funny how the night moves†¦With autumn closing in.[5]† Another distinct detail these three artists possessed in their elements revolved around their willingness to perform their music with strong structures[6]. While other rock artist seemingly resorted to implement the use of chorus entailing word, chorus, bridge structure, Seger, Brown, and Springsteen expressed themselves in a rather dynamic way not necessarily involving this format. And for this reason, their style of music and basic structure worked well to succeed among other musical forms dominating the twentieth century, including country, folk, rhythm, and blues. Moreover, their vocals involved a rough, authoritative and expressive tone. Sometimes it was spoken rather than sung. Through this method, these artists attempted to free themselves from traditional forms of performing music. With an excellent visual image, bare words minimum and music support, all three artists perfectly captured the experiences involved when one is in their youthful stage, peering into that timeless experience between childhood and adulthood, yet now realizing that time is on the move and that stage crawls further away from their grasp[7]. Ultimately, the most distinct detail among Seger, Brown, and Springsteen is their natural way of featuring stories in their songs without giving the impression of story telling. The way they manage to convey their innermost sentiments without an apparent awareness of the audience presence, exaggeration, or embroidery. This brings about a sensation that the audience is given an opportunity to eavesdrop on a man’s innermost thoughts-that is, men in particular who have learned to become honest with themselves. In my opinion, this is a rare opportunity and one should feel privileged to grace this art in life. Bob Seger Bibliography and Discography The discography and bibliography of Bob Seger includes two live albums, seventeen studio albums, sixty-two singles, and three compilation albums. His albums have recorded sales well over fifty million copies together with four platinum, seven-multi platinum, and two gold certifications[8]. Some of his major hit songs include â€Å"The Lonely One† which he released in February 1961. Others include â€Å"Ballad of the Yellow Beret†, â€Å"Sock It to Me Santa†, and â€Å"Persecution Smith† which made their way. Other great hits done by Bob Seger include â€Å"Ramblin’ Gamblin’ Man† which is arguably his greatest song. Seger released this song in April 1969. Other subsequent his singles include â€Å"Noah† and â€Å"Mongrel† which made their way in September 1969 and August 1970 respectively[9]. In the course of the 90’ until he faded, Bob Seger managed to release some highly rated singles. 1991 saw him release â€Å" Take A Chance†, â€Å"The Real Love† and â€Å"The Fire Inside†. Through to 1998, he released other singles including â€Å"Lock and Load†, â€Å"Hands in the Air†, â€Å"Manhattan†, and â€Å"In Your Time†. The year 2006 was the last year that saw his last single production. He closed his career with â€Å"Wait for Me† and â€Å"Wreck this Heart†[10]. Bowie, Herb. Bob Serger: Career analysis. New York: PaganTuna, (2010). Print Dawidoff, Nicholas. â€Å"The Pop Populist.† The New York Times Magazine. (2006). Print. Springsteen, Bruce, and Chet Flippo. â€Å"Bruce Springsteen: A Rock ‘n Roll Evangelist for Our Times Crusades for Patriotism and Puritanism of a Different Stripe.† Musician. 1884.73 (2004). Print. [1] Bowie, 13

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Edible Candle - Fire Science Demonstration

Edible Candle - Fire Science Demonstration For this science magic trick, you light a candle, blow out the flame and then eat the candle. Its safe, fun and even nutritious. Edible Candle Materials This project requires a few simple ingredients from the home: bananapecan nutcandle stick or candle holder with wax drippingsmatch or lighter Set Up The Trick Cut a banana so that it resembles a small candle. You want a candle that you can eat in one or two bites.Set your banana-candle on a candle stick or holder. If the candle stick has white wax drippings, this will add realism to the trick.Cut the pecan into a wick shape and set it into the top of the banana.When you are ready to do the trick, light the pecan, just like an ordinary candle wick. Blow out the flame and eat the candle. How It Works Pecans, as well as other nuts, are high in oils. The nut can be lit like a candle wick and will burn for several minutes. You could even use nuts on a cake as birthday candles!

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Facilities Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Facilities Management - Essay Example This integration actually links the system or the project with the external environment along with the different available resources. It acts positively in infrastructure development and efficient use of the project (Project Integration, p.1). Business value talks about the company's condition and strength in the long term. When we consider the business value we not only mean the firm's worth and value in the future only, but also its importance and usefulness to all its stakeholders including customers, suppliers, shareholders etc. In addition to it, for the measure of any organization's business value both tangible and intangible assets are equally important. For years the concept of business value is taken into consideration in many different ways but one cannot deny the fact that the linkage of external environment with the internal environment of the company has an impact on the business value as a whole. It is immensely important for the success and growth of an organization that all the related areas are linked effectively so that a perfect business value for a firm can be maintained (Business Value, p.1). On the contrary, real estate market value deals with the immovable property or land along with anything that is built on it, for example building.

Criminal law Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Criminal law - Coursework Example Sally complies and provides information. Denise, using this information, robs Victoria and also accidently fires a gun shot on her shoulder. This paper will discuss the liabilities and defence for both the defendants- Denise and Sally. It is clear that Denise knowingly went to rob Victoria. She had the attention to rob Victoria and had gained the necessary information from Sally to commit the crime. Denise was self-motivated. Robbery is taking money or goods forcefully from a person without the owners consent in his presence1. Denise is guilty of this charge. Moreover, Denise also went to the alley carrying a gun. The gun was loaded and Denise pointed it at Victoria while committing the robbery. This constitutes as violence. In this case, Denise cannot avoid being charged with armed robbery and violence. She would have to plead guilty of this charge. During their encounter, Denise fired a gunshot at Victoria which struck her on the shoulder and wounded her. Thus, Denise would also be charged for carrying and using an offensive weapon. For this, Denise is liable to being sentenced to prison. Denise could use the defence that she had no intention of wounding Victoria. The gunshot wound was not premeditated and was not intentional. Even though, Denise would still be charged for robbery and also wounding Victoria, she may be able reduce her sentence when she pleads guilty of robbery and unintentional weapon discharge. Sally is an accessory to the crime. An accessory to the crime is a person who is not the chief actor the felony or present at the time of the felony but rather helped commit the felony in a certain capacity. In this case, Sally is an accessory before the fact. An accessory before the fact is someone who helps or commands the chief actor of the felony before the felony is committed. The accessory to the fact either aids or encourages the principal to commit the crime. Sally was aware that Denise was going to use the information to

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Evolutionary Origins of Smallpox - Essay Example Smallpox is caused by the Variola virus, a member of the orthopox virus family and one of the many pox viruses that have been infecting a range of animal species throughout the world for millennia. Orthopox viruses include cowpox and chicken pox. Humans can be infected by some of these pox viruses, but none are as deadly as smallpox (Peters, 2004). When seen under an electronic microscope, Variola looks like a brick-shaped or elliptical classic form consisting of two strands of DNA (Barnes, 2007). They represent the largest and the most complex of the pathogenic viruses. It is one of the largest and most complicated viruses known, thus, so lethal and difficult to combat. When the Variola invades the human cell it, is forced to reproduce the virus until there are hundreds of thousands of viruses within the cell. When the cell can no longer contain the viruses, the cell bursts. The viruses shower onto other cells infecting them (Glynn & Glynn, 2004). Then the process begins all over ag ain. Unlike most DNA viruses that replicate within the nucleus of the host cell, pox viruses manage to replicate outside the nucleus within the cytoplasm of the infected cell. The virus sheds its double membranous coat once it gains entry into the host cell and slowly begins to absorb particular nutrients from the cytoplasm needed for its replication (Barnes, 2007). Origins of the disease The question of the origin and evolution of human smallpox virus was difficult to address. No one definitely knows when, where or how the first occurrence of the smallpox virus on earth happened. Even within documented human history, it is difficult to trace the forms of smallpox origins and ascertain its development completely. All kinds of plagues, rashes and pox diseases, as well as other diseases, were mentioned interchangeably. The earliest unscientific descriptions of the symptomatology do not sufficiently differentiate various kinds of ailments (Koplow, 2004). Even in the modern era, particu lar differential diagnosis has continued to pose a challenge as smallpox can evolve as numerous distinct types of diseases from time to time, until laboratory findings confirm the innitial clinical impressions. There are several explanations which have been expressed in attempt to explain the origins or beginning of the human version of the virus. Peters (2004) claims that the Variola virus can be traced back to prehistoric times. In its early form it was a virus that primarilry infected rodents. However, prehistoric humans hunted rodents for food or came into conatct with them in other ways, and at some point the virus may have jumped from rodents to humans. Koplow (2004) suggests that the small pox virus might have originated from arbitrary mutation of some other less virulent and even older subspecies of unknown virus. This might have happened most probably around 10,000B.C, somewhere in the bountiful Ganges River plain in India. He insinuates that some moderately minor disease a gents instinctively adapted and modified themselves from

Sociology, Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sociology, - Annotated Bibliography Example 2. Gozdziak, E.M., (2004) Training Refugee Mental Health Providers: Ethnography as a bridge to multicultural practice- Human Organization. Journal of the society for applied anthropology, vol. 63 (2) 203-210. 2004. Gozdziak in this paper discusses a psychological problem of refugees which is becoming serious. With the passage of time the number of refuges in the world is increasing, and this is resulting in increased mental complexities of these refuges. This article focuses on the importance of training programs to train psychologists to deal with the diverse pool of refugees for providing them mental support. Anthropology is also discussed in the article as a contributing factor n this regard. Menjivar has paid attention towards social networks with all their complexities amongst the Salvadoran immigrants. The book talks about scarcity of resources and the importance and need of sharing those with family and friends. Immigration is never easy, and this is what Menjivar is trying to establish here. From sociological analysis point of view the book is really good. It is highly informative. 4. Menjivar, C. (2006). Family reorganization in a context of legal uncertainty: Guatemalan and Salvadoran Immigrants in the United States.International Journal of Sociology of the Family vol 32(20) 223-245. Menjivar has discussed the issues of Immigrants in the Uni... Due importance has been given to the painstaking breaking and remaking of family ties and reorganizations. Legal issues faced by the immigrants, how the law can come between family members and how socially problematic lives immigrants may lead afterwards is the focus of this book. 5. Menjivar, C. (2004). Teen Life in El Salvador. Edited by Tompkins, C. and Sternberg, K. Westford, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group Co. Pp. 155-171 With her extensive research and writing experience in the field of psychological issues and sociology, Menjivar has brought forward the true picture of life as a teenager in El Salvador. The issues of teens are highlighted in the book. Relationship between teen unresolved issues and crime rate is mentioned while the issues and their solutions are also discussed. 6. Menjvar, C. and Marsiglia, F. F. 2004. Nicaraguan and Salvadoran Children and Families. Edited by Fong, R. New York: Guilford Publications. Pp. 253-273 Menjvar and Marsiglia discuss the social issues faced by Nicaraguans as well as Salvadoran Families and Children. As immigrants these people face a lot of problem which sometimes creates very complex situations. To avoid those situations, the practices with these families should be acceptable for them culturally. This is the focus of this book. 7. Menjvar, C. and Rodrguez, N. 2005. New Responses to State Terror. Austin: University of Texas Press. Pp. 335-346 Menjvar and Rodrguez talk about the carelessness of states due to the loopholes in welfare policies or legal issues. The book focuses on the responsibility of the states as a supporter and provider and it criticizes the loose rules which sometimes practically kill families, social life or psychologically normal behavior. 8. Menjvar, C. 2006. Global

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Concept of Virillio and Klein on globalization Assignment

Concept of Virillio and Klein on globalization - Assignment Example Armitage (2011) reports that an analysis of the professor's work reveals expressions that tend to link the globalization concept to internationalism, a term with a close association to communism and a distance a way from the unifying capitalistic market concept preached by preachers of pro westernized philosophies. Virillio rejects the globalization concept as perpetuator of a success of over free trade over totalitarian Marxism. According to Armitage (2011), his rejection of this view is in reaction to his claim that the definition lacks the aptitude to address the present loss of time gaps, the telescoping inherent in industrial and post industrial actions. Furthermore, the extensive concept of globalization is leading to the upper echelons of human modernity which is cultivated by technology and media coercion. In Armitage (2011), it is clear that Virillio believes that past these levels human beings can only encounter the backward tightening to a spectacle characterized by an inf inite density and dilapidated to personified humans permitting only existence through a phantom space. Armitage (2011) reports that Virillio arguments as supported by the recent fiscal catastrophes that brought countless nations to the brink of bankruptcy while putting countable multinationals out of business. Virillio suggest that the comprehension of the present fiscal predicaments should take a school of thought that hat views it as a hypermodern catastrophe. A misfortune characterized by hypermodern speed flanking the entire global civilization which is a bout to rupture, (Armitage, 2011).Evidently, this proposition is inline with the well comprehended economic perception that any form of advancement as a corresponding face of a catastrophe. This has the implication that progress has an equivalent face which is an upheaval and is analogous to the double faces of a coin. Armitage (2011) cites such pundits like Walter Benjamin who furthered the theoretical conceptualization of cat astrophic attributes of globalization to have influenced Virilio's perception of globalization. Armitage (2011) cites Virilio's assertion that the westernization forged by Benjamin Franklin which over the decades supported rampart capitalistic globalization has finally reached its conclusive phase. Consequently, the present persistent fiscal negativity evident globally impeccably confirms these propositions. According to Klein (2008), globalization which has in the past years prompted the free global trade has over years profited multinationals at the expense of the disadvantage populace around the globe. From both books, Klein (2008) and Klein (2000), it is evident that corporations have over the years advanced sizably to levels that they presently supersede state organizations. Klein (2000) suggests that presently, corporate commands such elevated echelon of influence that they dictate the direction taken by political regimes across the globe. Klein (2000) argues that while they h ave in time indirectly captured governance, they are not obligated to nations' citizens but to their self centered shareholders. Klein (2000) claims that the events have adversely affected the tri pillars of civic space resulting in highly constricted social liberties and increasingly restricted employment prospects. According to Klein (2000), the maiden pillar that the corporate through state agencies have taken away from the common populace is the constricted liberty. Klein

The Best Vacation I Ever Had Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

The Best Vacation I Ever Had - Essay Example I was so relieved when I finally heard my captain's announcement that the plane would be touching down at my designated country's Changi International Airport in a few minutes. The weather was fine on that Sunday morning when I finally arrived at my destination. I was so happy to be able to synchronize my watch and try to adapt to the local time. My biological clock took some time getting used to the current time zone I was in. I was in a high, exuberant mood and could not wait to get to my hotel. I wanted to start sight-seeing straightaway because I was that excited. I cleared customs and immigration in just under half an hour. I looked around for the directional signs and located the taxi-stand where I took a cab to my hotel, the Raffles Hotel. I loved the city the minute I got into my short cab ride to my hotel. It was bustling with life. There were hundreds and thousands of people everywhere. It looked as though the whole city was like a giant hive teeming with people. People just poured out from buildings and they were on the move all the time. I got an eyeful of what the city was like before I arrived at my hotel. I had my currency converted back home in L.A. so I counted out the correct amount and got back my change. I was glad I did not have to pay a tip to the driver. The Raffles Hotel was totally grand. ... He looked magnificent in his livery. The front desk's reception staff were very polite, courteous and helpful. I got settled into my hotel room in a few minutes. I hit the shower and was so glad to have my first real shower about twenty-fours after my last one in my own home. I changed into fresh clothing and packed a daytime carry bag with my personal essential valuables and camera. I was ready to go for my first day tour of Singapore. I enquired at the information desk on the best tourist location to visit. I was told to see Sentosa. It was an island resort with all the beautiful tourist spots to entertain, educate and engage any visitor.As I was not hungry for breakfast, I opted to get aboard the island of Sentosa and have my late breakfast there. I boarded the hotel's bus to get to the cable car station. There was an orderly queue to buy tickets for the cable car. I bought my ticket and had the luxury of having the entire cable car to myself for the duration of the ride. It was b eautiful up there, being suspended in a moving cable car and transported driverless along a long wire. I looked down and saw that the transportation on the roads were as small as ants. I was lucky to have no fear of vertigo. The scenery was breathtaking. I took pictures through the glass window. My cable car was pulled along soundlessly over the sea. I looked down and saw all sizes of sea transport cruising through the waterways. It was like traveling in a low flying aircraft. Pretty soon, my cable car ride came to an end. I had reached the long end of the electric cable line. The first person who greeted me when I stepped out of my vehicle was a photographer. He was touting snaps against an enlarged scenery photograph backdrop. I thought it was expensive at USD 15 per shot so

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Concept of Virillio and Klein on globalization Assignment

Concept of Virillio and Klein on globalization - Assignment Example Armitage (2011) reports that an analysis of the professor's work reveals expressions that tend to link the globalization concept to internationalism, a term with a close association to communism and a distance a way from the unifying capitalistic market concept preached by preachers of pro westernized philosophies. Virillio rejects the globalization concept as perpetuator of a success of over free trade over totalitarian Marxism. According to Armitage (2011), his rejection of this view is in reaction to his claim that the definition lacks the aptitude to address the present loss of time gaps, the telescoping inherent in industrial and post industrial actions. Furthermore, the extensive concept of globalization is leading to the upper echelons of human modernity which is cultivated by technology and media coercion. In Armitage (2011), it is clear that Virillio believes that past these levels human beings can only encounter the backward tightening to a spectacle characterized by an inf inite density and dilapidated to personified humans permitting only existence through a phantom space. Armitage (2011) reports that Virillio arguments as supported by the recent fiscal catastrophes that brought countless nations to the brink of bankruptcy while putting countable multinationals out of business. Virillio suggest that the comprehension of the present fiscal predicaments should take a school of thought that hat views it as a hypermodern catastrophe. A misfortune characterized by hypermodern speed flanking the entire global civilization which is a bout to rupture, (Armitage, 2011).Evidently, this proposition is inline with the well comprehended economic perception that any form of advancement as a corresponding face of a catastrophe. This has the implication that progress has an equivalent face which is an upheaval and is analogous to the double faces of a coin. Armitage (2011) cites such pundits like Walter Benjamin who furthered the theoretical conceptualization of cat astrophic attributes of globalization to have influenced Virilio's perception of globalization. Armitage (2011) cites Virilio's assertion that the westernization forged by Benjamin Franklin which over the decades supported rampart capitalistic globalization has finally reached its conclusive phase. Consequently, the present persistent fiscal negativity evident globally impeccably confirms these propositions. According to Klein (2008), globalization which has in the past years prompted the free global trade has over years profited multinationals at the expense of the disadvantage populace around the globe. From both books, Klein (2008) and Klein (2000), it is evident that corporations have over the years advanced sizably to levels that they presently supersede state organizations. Klein (2000) suggests that presently, corporate commands such elevated echelon of influence that they dictate the direction taken by political regimes across the globe. Klein (2000) argues that while they h ave in time indirectly captured governance, they are not obligated to nations' citizens but to their self centered shareholders. Klein (2000) claims that the events have adversely affected the tri pillars of civic space resulting in highly constricted social liberties and increasingly restricted employment prospects. According to Klein (2000), the maiden pillar that the corporate through state agencies have taken away from the common populace is the constricted liberty. Klein

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Justice John Paul Stevens Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Justice John Paul Stevens - Case Study Example One of the most important factors of this case is the dissenting opinion of Justice John Paul Stevens. Justice Stevens stated that the judgment reached by the court was a strained decision which was also supported by a reading which was unpersuasive. He continued to say that the decision had overturned a precedent which had stood for a long time and also that the court had bestowed the law in a dramatic upheaval. Stevens states that it was notable of the amendment because it had omitted any of the statement of the needs that were associated with the individual's rights to utilize firearms when hunting or also in self defense and that this rights were present in the Declarations of Rights of Pennsylvania and Vermont (Gary, 2008). The dissent of Justice Stevens can be seen to be focused on four points of disagreement. One of the point of disagreement is that the Founders did not intend to make the individuals rights in possession of guns an aspect of the Second Amendment and if they intended it they would have made that clause expressly in the Second Amendment. The other point of disagreement is that the preamble concerning the militia and that the exact phrase which mentions to keep and bear arms is only applicable to the state militias only and not all individuals according to the Second Amendment.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Four Theoretical Approaches to Metaphysics Essay Example for Free

Four Theoretical Approaches to Metaphysics Essay There are four theoretical approaches to the metaphysics and they include Dualism and the theory that what exists on can do so on two levels the physical or the mental. The next approach is Materialism which theorizes that everything exists on a physical level. Then there is the Idealism approach which states that everything that exists is mental or spiritual. Finally, there is Alternative Views which theorizes that what exists in neither mental nor spiritual but believed that what exists is both, which means that what exists is neutral. In the Materialism theory of metaphysics it is said that everything is made of some kind of structure that are now called atoms. These atoms are governed entirely by physical laws and are thought to make up everything that we know and see. There were and are still many men in the scientific community that feel this way, but the most pronounced one was named Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes implied â€Å"clearly that all things are made of material particles and that all change reduces to motion. † (cite) His theory states that everything is matter in motion to include an individual’s thought process. Hobbes goes into detail about how this process works and called it perception or sense. His way of describing it is the fact that things have different properties and that the properties do not really exist. The properties of an object are based on what we perceive them to be. We perceive a rose to be beautiful, smell nice, and have red pedals. Those properties according to Hobbes are all based on perception and the rose does not actually have any of these traits. â€Å"The things that really are in the world outside us are those motions by which these seemings are caused. (cite) Hobbes describes perception as motion from the outside effects the motion of the inside of a person. The motion on the outside affected the motion on the inside and leaves a lasting effect after the motion is complete or dispersed then the motion that remains behind on the inside is left as a memory. The motion that is still on the inside is a perception and in turn is the root cause for thinking, imagination, and memory. As humans we describe this reaction by assigning words to these perceptions and Hobbes labeled that as reasoning. The way that people reason is nothing sort of â€Å"adding and subtracting of the consequences of general names. † (cite) The easiest way that this can be explained would be to refer it to a computer. The hard drive is considered as the movement on the inside and the keyboard and mouse as the outside. The hard drive is made up of a disk and magnet and works by taking the disc and spinning is around at a rapid pace. Next the magnet is moved around to encode the data to the hard drive. This whole process is done through movement and if stationary there is nothing that can be done to retrieve or store information. First to store or retrieve information an external source of movement needs to happen. Movement from the outside was represented as a keyboard and mouse. The keyboard and mouse which is movement from the outside affects the hard drive which is the movement from the inside and vice versa. Now that movement has been represented the reasoning of information needs to be considered. Now we understand what movement effect movement means we can now address the fact of reasoning and perception. All of the information that the computer takes in needs to go somewhere and needs to be retrieved again. The computer makes sense of all the data by assigning numbers to all of the data so that it can be retrieved again. This aspect would be considered our perception which is reasoning which as Hobbes stated before is our thinking, memory, and imagination. Now some people would argue that Hobbes theory does not take into accounts decision making and other voluntary actions, but he does go into detail about how that process works. Hobbes addresses the finer points of the decision process by stating that every decision or movement starts of as an â€Å"endeavor† which was caused by perception. He then breaks it down even into two groups consisting of desire and aversion. When the endeavor is toward something then it is considered a desire and when it is away it is considered an aversion. We associate desire and aversion with words like love and hate or good and bad. So according to Hobbes the basic principle of our decision making is like a magnet. Let’s look at the magnet that is in the computer and affects the hard drive. Sometimes data can be corrupted and the information will not take to the hard drive. The process of corrupt data being entered from the outside can be considered as an aversion. Now any information that the system lets in can be considers as desire. If that did not make sense then lets look at a magnet in general. A magnet has a positive and a negative side. Anything that is attracted to the positive side can be considered a desire and anything that is repelled by the negative side can be considered an aversion. In the recent years there has been some advancements in technology that allows us to uncover the mysteries of the universe. Scientists have found matter that is smaller than atoms and they are calling them subatomic particles. It has been discovered that these particles make up every aspect of the universe and are comprised of some type of energy that is connected with everything else. After this discovery a lot of scientists are rattled about their theory and if Materialism is really the right type of metaphysical theory to go with. However, this does not completely rule this theory out it just seems like that needs to some changes or tweaks to the way that we think about Materialism.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Effectiveness of Play Therapy in Enhancing Social Skills

Effectiveness of Play Therapy in Enhancing Social Skills Effectiveness of Play Therapy in enhancing Social skills in Intellectually Disabled Children by Azka Tauqeer Asjad Abstract The present study was targeted to measure the effectiveness of play therapy in enhancing social skills in pre-diagnosed intellectually disabled children of mild and moderate level. The research was comprised of ten intellectually disabled children of mild and moderate level of ages 5-15 from Army Special Education Academy Rawalpindi. Social skills were considered as dependent variable, whereas play therapy as independent variable in this study. The method of this research was quasi, pretest-posttest type with an experimental and control group. Social Skills Checklist (Heather Thomas, 2013) was administered in pretest and posttest. It was hypothesized that play therapy on experimental group will be effective as it will produce significant positive results in enhancing social skills as compared to the control group. The analysis included paired sample t-test and findings were presented in tabulated form. The current study will help in understanding the use of play therapy to facilitate children with intellectual disability and it will bridge the gap between the mental health needs of exceptional children and the available services. Play therapy is a therapeutic process between the client and the therapist where the therapist uses play as a therapeutic intervention for solving the child’s emotional and social difficulties and for incorporating required skills and appropriate behavior (Association for Play Therapy). Play therapy acts as a mode of communication between the therapist and the child. This method is based on the assumption that play is a way of children making contact with their environment. Play therapy is to children what counseling and psychotherapy is to adults. Young children express themselves comfortably through play when they cannot through meaningful conversation. Therefore, play is an indirect way for therapists to understand and alter children’s perceptions, cognitions, and behaviors. Intellectual disability stands for impairments in overall mental abilities which affects adaptive functioning skills of three multiple domains or areas that arise during the passage of children’s development. Limitations should be present in comparison to other peoples of the same age, gender, and social-cultural upbringing. These individuals show difficulties perceiving and assimilating new informa ­tion, learning new things quickly and completely, applying knowledge and skills to solve new problems, thinking imaginatively and flexibly, and responding swiftly and correctly. The criteria identify three domains of adaptive function ­ing i.e. conceptual, social, and practical. Individuals with intellectual disability should show impair ­ment in at least one domain. The first one is conceptual domain that includes skills in language, reading, writing, mathematics, reasoning, knowledge and the ability to learn and remember information and skills. The second domain is social skills which includes interpersonal communication skills, empathy rules following, social adjustment, understanding others, making and maintaining friends. The last domain is Practical skills and it includes activities of daily living skills including personal care safety, home activities, school/work skills recreational activities and using money. (DSM V) In the case of children with intellectual disability, thorough training is required to integrate appropriate social behavior. If the intellectually disabled children are provided the opportunity to socialize with others during childhood, they will achieve social competency. Therefore training should be started very early (NIMH, 1990). Social development is multidimensional processes through which children gain competencies and the required social behavior that enable them to function in a social environment appropriately, in a way that is favorable to their welfare and to that of others as well. Social skills have been described in various terms. Eisenberg and Harris (1984) have defined it as developmentally related abilities that lead towards achieving the optimal level of social competence. According to Charon (1986), social skills are a composition of skills that enables us to interact, socialize and develop relationships with others. They are comprised of both verbal and non-verb al types of communication. According to American Psychological School Association (2012), schools are a source of enhancing and developing social skills. According to them, social skills stand for the acceptable set of behavior and etiquettes to behave and interact in the society and to refrain from the negative behaviors unacceptable in the community as a byproduct of these positive influences and interactions. If there are services provided in school environment where concern is focused by the counselor on the social skills and interpersonal development of the students, it can also boost the academic performance (McClelland, Morrison, Holmes, 2000). If the children achieved meaningful and positive interpersonal relationships in the elementary years i.e. 6-12 ages; they will have the ability to face the challenges of adolescence and perform much better in their social and academic lives (Feldman, 2014). Wlkinson and Carter (1982), author of the Social Skills Training Manual; included social behaviors which are: greeting behaviors such as hand shaking; smiling; hugging; saying: â€Å"Hi†; in communicating with others, maintaining eye contact and be at a reasonable distance. Inappropriate social behavior of intellectually disabled children may be due to their incorrect perception about their social environment and situations. They may be facing difficulties in understanding and identifying social relationships, misguiding others feelings and inability to understand the required social rules conformity. They may also be unable to understand different manners and ways of communicating with peers, adults and family (Kronick, 1983). Children express themselves freely in play therapy because it is a condition which does not lead to any serious consequences although it is fun and joyful. It helps the child in forgetting the frightening world and it provides a safe environment where risk can be taken and there can be no rules or social conformity and the child is independent from the real world (Skynner Cleese 1983:298). Play is not any artificial environment created by the therapist or experimenter; instead it is child’s natural world where they could be free from obstacles of daily life charades. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights states that play is an undeniable right for every child in 1989. The American Academy of Pediatrics published a white paper to commemorate the significance of play for the healthy growth and development of the children (Ginsberg, 2007). Play therapy provides a safe, nurturing and comfortable environment where children play out what they have experienced, their reactions and feelings about those experiences, what they need in their lives, and how they feel about themselves. Play is also use to teach new skills to the client. Therefore it is a complete therapeutic process. Play therapy is the most effective way as it makes the child feel safer. It is a place which is completely safe, a place where the child is accepted as the person he is. It is an active process where the child is allowed to be creative, make mistakes and be himself. Play is a mode of embracing new information and making it part of their personalities. Social Skills and Play Therapy Social skills stand for the ways which the child could in order to relate with others, to make new friends, to express their needs. It makes the child understand his boundaries, others feelings and needs and he learn cooperation. For the social skills to be developed completely, the child has to understand and be familiar with multiple actions and behaviors and be aware about the consequences. As stated by Landreth (2001), all children can gain positive behaviors and influences by engaging in a controlled play therapy where they are given the chance to exercise their social skills. Group play therapy could also benefit the child in refining new skills, accepting their social self and their peers, identifying their social capabilities and in achieving self-control (Landreth et al., 2005). Counseling provided at elementary level in the school setting help children in learning of new skills as well as in becoming aware and responsive of their customs, values and priorities (Gladding, 2011). Working along a small group who are experiencing the same difficulties enhance the abilities of students to work out their social, psychological and emotional challenges (Campbell Bowman, 1993). Functional skills are important for the intellectual disabled children to learn in the educational process as unlike to normal children who could adopt the required behaviors and skills through observation of their environment and daily experience. The curriculum of intellectually disabled children is planned by keeping in the view the importance of teaching daily life skills. Even the basic things such as putting nuts and bolts together are practiced by the children. The intellectual disabled children require direct training in specific activities and tasks lo learn generalization and to perform the tasks more regularly and easily (Narayan Kutty, 1998). Teaching the age appropriate social skills helps the child in acquiring the skills compulsory for living independently in the social community. The program for teaching such skills differs from the regular academic curriculum and it maximizes the self-esteem, independence and competence in daily life of the children (Heward, 2006). It is stated that a small group intervention can contribute positively in the process of developing social skills (Kayler Sherman, 2009). Group interventions provide the opportunity to develop and sustain relationships as well as enhance the personal characteristics that could influence accomplishment. It is a multidimensional, effective and efficient method of teaching new behaviors and skills (Akos Milsom, 2007). Theories of Intellectual Disability The intellectual disabled also progress through the same cognitive developmental stages defined by Piaget as their peers (Zigler, 1969). The only difference is that their cognitive stages develop much slower and their cognitive abilities cannot be compared with a non-disabled individual. An intellectual disabled individual cannot reach the mature level of cognitive functioning at any point. According to the various studies, intellectual disabled individuals will perform poor on cognitive tasks as compared to the control group of same mental age level. It was known was â€Å"mental-age lag† phenomena (Spitz, 1982). According to developmental theorists, children suffering from intellectual disability also experience the similar information restructuring as explained by Piaget, but their process is much slower as compared to the normal children. According to Anderson, Children with intellectual disability have slower speed of processing and this is the reason that they could understand information in chunks as compared to information in whole. The individuals with intellectual disability, whether they are children or adult, they will face deficits in intellectual abilities and knowledge processing in comparison to the individuals with same mental age. It means that intellectual disability has an enduring and lasting effect which cannot be reversed. The consequences of intellectual disability may differ from person to person as different abilities level present in people without any such difficulty. Approximately 90% of the intellectual disabled are at mild level and they only differ from normal population as they are much slower in learning new set of skills and information. Rest of the 10% will have complications in daily functioning and social skills (Gallagher et al., 2000). If they are diagnosed in early years and a proper individual educational plan is formulated according to their specific needs; they can become a supportive and contributing member of the society. Children with intellectual disability have the capability to learn things in the same 12 learning techniques as other normal children do, but due to their labeling and exclusion from normal education, they are often failed to see as learners. This is the lead reason which cause low literacy level in intellectual disabled population. The researcher conducted a meta-analysis of the researches on intellectual disability and learning in special education and only one of the research results pointed out that special education proved useful for children with intellectual disabilities. In the other researches, learning at home and normal institutions also seemed to benefit the intellectual disabled (Jackson, 1994).

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Paying Pirate Demands Essay -- Piracy

When many people think of pirates they think of the fictitious Hollywood films that depict the animated characters that have shaped our perception of pirates today. The reality of the situation is that pirates are very real and have emerged as a major threat to the maritime industry as well as ship owners and national economies alike. Although the threat of piracy has yet to receive the attention that many feel it deserves, piracy has increasingly affected the way in which the maritime industry conducts business with other countries in many ways. Piracy not only affects the involved nations both economically and politically, it also contributes to ship owners’ overall cost structures as well as day to day operations. We will discuss the ethical issues surrounding the current concerns of paying pirate demands, as well as evaluate the impact to the affected parties if measures were put into place to solve the issue. Piracy is caused by both political and economic factors. Most of the nations involved in piracy have very poor populations. Although obviously unethical, many citizens of foreign nations such as Somalia and many areas in West Africa simply do not have any other means of providing for their families, which in turn makes piracy a very attractive option. Economically, piracy is a very cost effective strategy to earn substantial profits with minimal cost. In many cases a ship can be seized by pirates rather inexpensively and very quickly, then later released back to the owners for a substantial monetary amount received from a ransom. Politically, piracy occurs simply because of a lack of enforcement against piracy across the globe. In many cases, if a ship is known to have been taken over by pirates foreign gov... ...cil on Foreign Relations. Retrieved April 20, 2012, from Combating Maritime Piracy: Bowden, A. (2010). The Economic Cost of Maritime Piracy. Lansing, P., & Peterson, M. (2011). Ship-Owners and the Twenty-First Century Somali Pirate. The Business Ethics of Ransom Payment. Journal of Business Ethics , 507-516. Rosenberg, D. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2012, from The South China Sea: Stopford, M. (2009). Maritime Economics 3rd Edition. New York: Routledge. Warren, R. C. (2011). Piracy and Shipowners' Ethical Dilemmas. Society and Business Review , 49-60.

Friday, October 11, 2019

A Nation of Wimps Essay

A Nation Of Wimps Parents are going to extreme lengths to take the bumps out of life for their children. However, that has the net effect of making kids more fragile, and that may be why they’re braking down so easily. People learn through experience, and through failure they learn how to cope with things later on in life, themselves. And whether we realize that or not, this nation is turning out to be producing more and more wimps. The Fragility Factor College is one of the biggest fragility factors. It leads to psychological distress, binge drinking, substance abuse, self-mutilation, etc. Relationship problems don’t go away, anorexia and bulimia keep on coming. Welcome to the Hothouse Parents are overprotecting their children, they are intruding too much into their lives. They started to call colleges and asking about their grades. American parents today expect their children to be perfect, and that puts to much pressure on them. Arrivederci, Playtime Children don’t play enough these days. Over 40, 000 schools in the U. S. don’t have recess anymore. Commercialization of children’s play leads to more stressed out children. Plays develops cognitive thinking, and is important for normal development of children. The Eternal Umbilicus Cellphones today make children addictive to their parents. Students are typically in contact with their parents several times a day, which makes them constantly homesick, and keeps them away from learning how to manage for themselves. All that is the pathway to depression, it weakens self-regulation, it influences relationships and friendships, and make children become more frustrated and impatient which then leads to the fail of relationships and even greater depression. From Scrutiny to Anxiety†¦ and Beyond What creates anxious children is parents hovering and protecting them from stressful experiences. This group of children experiences stress in situations most kids find unthreatening. They grow up shrinking from social contact, and lack confidence. They are later on easily influenced by others. Overparenting creates lifelong vulnerability to anxiety and depression. Endless Adolescence Adulthood no longer begins after adolescence ends. Kids are starting to extend childhood, because they are making up for the things they weren’t supposed to do as children, and are creating a whole new stage called the â€Å"early adulthood. † Boom Boom Boomerang Play is connected to the making of healthy relationships later on in life. The less time children spend in play, the less socially competent they become. Through play we learn how to read feelings and negotiate conflicts. Taking the play out of childhood is bound to create development lags. Just Whose Shark Tank Is It Anyway? Competition has become a stressful and significant part of our everyday lives. Parents imagine that their children must be swimming in a big shark tank. Kids today are more ambivalent about the college race than are parents. Nowadays, parents are actually locking their kids into fragility, and by that the kids never learn how to cope with anxiety. Putting Worry in its Place Parents need to abandon the idea of perfection and give up some the invasive control. Children are far less integrated into adult society than they used to be, and by that parents have introduced a tendency to assume that children can’t manage difficult situations. Parents need to remember that one of the goals of higher educations is developing the capacity of thinking for ourselves. Conclusion Indeed parents today have became overprotective of their children, they overshelter them and overpraise them. They cheat for their children by making up fake diseases and getting them into colleges by relations. All of that is creating a whole different type of kids, that aren’t individuals anymore, we are creating the nation of kinds depending on their parents, a nation of wimps,

Thursday, October 10, 2019

10 Prime Examples of a Good Movie

10 Prime Examples of A Good Movie Calvin Johnson Most everyone in the world enjoys a great movie. There are many different elements that make a good movie. A few elemtents are: photography, mise en scene, movement, editing, sound, acting, drama, story, writing, and finally ideiology. If a movie excels in one of more of these things the movie is destined for success. There are 10 movies that are prime examples of the things that make movies good. There are three types of film: realism, classicism, and formalism. Working Girl staring Melonie Griffith and Harrison Ford is a perfect example of classical film.An extreme long shot in the beginning sets the place as New York in the movie as the establishing shot. This is a typical classical Hollywood story. Girl is poor and unappreciated, then climbs up ladder and gets her wish, the bad guy gets fired, the hero gets the man, and she gets the dream job she always wanted and deserved. This movie's plot reminds me of the movie the Player which makes fun of this kind of classical, hollywood movie. These classical movies, predictable. Yes. Entertaining. Yes. Feel good about yourself at the end? Of Course.According to the INDB â€Å"The movie is the epitome of 80s corporate America/feminist thinking, but more importantly is a feel good movie with, not to mention it again†¦ the best make-over ever! † The movie Amadeus is a prime example of Mise en scene, which is how the visual materials are staged, framed, and photographed. The phenomenal use of lighting and open and closed space is demonstrated lushly in this movie. The film is gorgeously done, with vivid costumes and wigs, and dark shadows running rampant through tense parts of the movie. Candlelight is show beautifully as well.During one such scene the narrator an old Salieri is talking with a priest and having dark shadows cast on him while the priest is shown is bright light. A reviewer of the movie states that: â€Å"Trough some clever lighting managed to create effects such as ghostly white-tied audiences applauding behind the mirrored doors, in general not much was made of them, and the number of times when they had to be manually opened and closed to begin a new scene not only became distracting, but also further segmented the play into narrative bits and dramatized bits† (http://www. tthomasu. ca/~hunt/reviews/amadeus. htm) From the opening with a eight minute long, tracking shot, we hear inside a film studio of a few men discussing how in films nowadays cut to different scenes to much. They also state how great tracking shots are. This is humorous because all the while the camera is using a long tracking shot. The movie The Player is a satire of Hollywood movies. The movie states that all audiences wants to see are happy Hollywood style movies (such as working girl. ) This movie uses incredible use of camera angles.When the hero commits a crime and accidentally murders someone and is being interigated and eventually let f ree, the way camera pans out when he leaves police room says that he has won and that the police know that a guilty man is walking free. When being interigated, the camera pans from police officer to him and back and forward and you can see the delirium in his face. Roger Ebert states that: â€Å"Watching him in some shots, especially when the camera is below eye level and Altman uses a mock-heroic composition, we realize with a shock that Griffin looks uncannily like the young Citizen Kane. Most films now use a technique known as cutting to continuity, which tries to preserve the fluidity of an event without literally showing it all. A movie might show someone exiting their office and then cut to them getting into their car. The movie Rope by Alfred Hitchcock had very interesting means of editing. This being Alfred Hitchcock's first color movie he had a very interesting way of editing the moving, taking cuts only every ten minutes making the movie play out much like a play. The ca mera would zoom into a bookshelf, or the back of someone when a cut was in need.This type of editing is very fluid, and not distracting at all to the viewer. This of course, would need an interesting set to film the movie. According to imdb. com: â€Å"For the 10 minute takes Hitch had to design a set which could accommodate the huge cameras. When the camera moved the set walls were designed to go flying up (off camera) so the crew could move from room to room. † A Clockwork Orange, brilliantly directed by Stanly Kubrick, has very interesting and disturbing use of sound. One particular disturbing event was when Alex's old friends who now are police officers, brutally attack im, while a happy, funny, synthesized sounds come from the movie screen yet when Alex rapes a brutally beats a man, he sings a happy song, singing in the rain! Of course, the masterpiece of sound in this movie is Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, fourth movement. Our humble narrator, (as he most modestly puts it) gets conditioned by a government program by watching violent scenes and when he sees the violence, it makes Alex physically ill. Well, it just so happens that this song (which is one his favorites) gets played during the violent images, conditioning him against the song.At the end, the government fixes him by letting him listen to his song again (which is he associates with being with a woman) which turns into a joyous listen unlike his previous sickening experience. It was interesting to note that when the newspapers mentioned that Alex was a killer and bad, everyone turned against him, his family included. Then, when the newspaper says he's a victim, his family says they were too hard on him and the government suddenly wants to help him. The movie One Flew Over the Cookoos nest has some of the most amazing acting in a film ever.It stars Jack Nickleson as the hero who gets sent to an insane asylum. The amazing thing about Jack's acting is that throughout the movie one can not tell if he is slightly crazy, or just acting completely crazy. The people of the crazy hospital is an all star cast staring Louise Fletcher (who won an Oscar,) Danny DeVeto, Christopher Lloyd, and Brad Dourif. â€Å"There can be no understanding between the hands and the brain unless the heart acts as mediator. † This is the main message in which many have deemed the greatest movie of all time. Metropolis has a rare quality that most silent films don't have.It was interesting enough to keep most viewers attention. That is no small feat considering the movie was made almost 80 years ago Didn't know who was good or bad, who to root for? Not typical cowboy movie The story takes a turn for the worst when he takes his first drink Shows the dark side of killing Ned Logan (Morgan Freeman) and the Schofield Kid (Jaimz Woolvett) can't kill anymore Through flashbacks, an event where a samurai is murdered and a woman is raped and is the events unfold by 4 different people, but told differently each time.The first is told by Tojomaru, the infamous bandit, then Masako the wife, then by a medium channeling the slain samarai, then the truth is finally revealed by a farmer who witnessed the whole events. My favorite part of this movie was during the first 3 fight scenes the fighting is very fluid, like a ballet. But during the 4th version told of the story, the fighting is raw, with the two people scrambling and falling all over the ground. At one point, Tajomaru even throws dirt at his attacker.In the movie Boyz in the Hood brilliantly directed by John Singleton is a social outcry of the poor black community. It has many different points about â€Å"the hood† and gets its points across very well. It is interesting showing how good kid gets nurtured by mother and is show in light while bad kid feels unloved and is shown in the dark. Eventually, good kid gets to go to college while bad kid gets to go to jail. Throughout the movie there is helicopter and polic e sirens constantly in the background, as if it is part of the score. Shows the importance of having a strong father figure in ones life.The main ideology of the movie is that if you live in a poor area, there is no excuse to not live your dreams and become successful and leave your poor surroundings. It is much easier to embrace it, and say this is my destiny and become a drug dealer, thug, thief, etc. But if one works hard, they can make the best out of their life. The movie ends with a creepy line from Darin ‘Doughboy' Baker (played by Ice Cube) â€Å"I watched the news this morning. Either they don't know, don't show, or don't care about what's going on in the hood. † (imdb) In conclusion, if a movie has one or more of these ten elements, it will be great.