Monday, September 30, 2019
The Element Fluorine Fluorine is an element that appears in the periodic table. It is apart from the halogen series. It appears in group 17 and period 2. It is important to understand its structure ,physical , and chemical properties. Fluorine is the 13th most abundant element on earth and is very important to earth today. Fluorines mysterious structure reacts vigorously with itself and other elements making things that impacted our technology, history, and daily lives. Fluorine is the chemical element of atomic number 9, a poisonous pale yellow part from the halogen series.It is the most reactive element and is composed of diatomic molecule F2. Fluorine was discovered in 1886 by Joseph Henri Moissan, who also produced the first artificial diamond. The element Fluorine has nine protons and electrons and ten neutrons. Fluorines atomic mass is 188. 998404 amu. Fluorines atomic number is 9. Fluorines density at 293 K is 1. 696 g/cm. That makes fluorine about 1. 3 times as dense as air. The electron configuration of Fluorine is [He] 2s2 2p5. Its crystal structure is cubic. To continue Fluorines name origin came from the latin word fluo (flow).Fluorine went through a long process before being discovered. Georgius Agricola german mineralogist in the 1530s described the use of the mineral fluorspar in metal refinal. Ã¢â¬Å"FluorÃ¢â¬ in fluorspar is where fluorine got its name. Although Agricola didn't realize fluorspar was a mineral of Fluorine. During that time Fluorspar became an intense subject to chemist. Around the1800s chemist carried out experiments on fluorspar in attempts to isolate fluorine. However they failed to do so , instead produced what we call now hydrofluoric acid, a deadly acid.Carl Wilhelm Scheele studied and set off intense work to the acid and its composition. All chemist knew already that there had been a never before seenelement. However little did they know the element they were searching for was dangerous. In attempts to isolate fluorine led to bindings and many fatalities. A chemist named Belgian paulin louied died from exposure to the chemical. Finally in 1988 fluorine was isolated. Moissan made a solution of hydrofluoric acid by putting it in potassium hydrogen fluoride. He cooled the solution to Ã 23 and passed it through an electric current.And then finally the gas they been searching for, for decades appeared. Henri Moissan received the 1906 Nobel prize in chemistry for his great achievement. Fluorine has any different complicated physical properties. Did you know that glass, ceramics,carbon, finely divided metals, and even water burn in fluoride. Fluorines has a boiling point of Ã 188. 14 c and a melting point of Ã 219. 62 c. When not pale white, yellow, or colorless Fluorine is fluorescent. Ã¢â¬Å"Most common substances like fluorine exist as states of matter as solids,liquids,gases, and plasmaÃ¢â¬ (fluorine properties).Fluorine has a pungent sharp strong smell that can be detected in very small amo unts, as low as 20 parts per billion. In liquid form fluorine is freely soluble in liquid oxygen and ozone. Fluorine is the most chemically reactive element and the most electronegative. Fluorides chemical element is F. Fluorine is highly poisonous and explosive. That is why it took 74 years of continuous efforts to isolate the dangerous and corrosive element. When fluorine is mixed with water it reacts explosively on the contrary fluorine cannot mix with oxygen. To continue fluorine is heat resistant however very flammable.Fluorines electronegativity according to Pauling is 4. Fluorines 1st ionization energy is 1680. 6 jk molÃ 1. The second is 3134 kj mol Ã 1 and the third is 6050 kj mole. It combines easily with every other element except helium, neon, oxygen , and argon. That is why element must be handled with extreme care. Furthermore fluorine may be a pale white highly destructive element however it is very useful to the world and important to economy and technology. It ha s many commercial, industrial, and medical uses. Did you know that fluorine is used in rocket fuel, it helps the oxidizer in rocket fuel to burn.To continue isotopically fractionated uranium is created with the help of fluoridated compounds, which is a very important step in uranium purification in Dover plants. Fluorine is also used in melting metals to make lenses for focussing infrared radiation. Without fluorine teens and children of our era would always be bored. Fluorine is also used in the production of computer chips, micro electronic sensors, and television screens. One of the most common uses of fluorine is that it is found in toothpaste and mouthwash. It helps prevents tooth cavities and and dental decay.Fluorinated compounds help in the production of polymers in plastics. It's used to make polytetrafluorethylene and manufacture retractable roofs. Fluoridated compounds are found in refrigerators, air conditioners, and spray cans. They are used to replace chlorofluorocarbo ns or CFCS, which are very dangerous for the ozone layer. Furthermore Fluorine is used for glass etching meaning creating art on the surface of glass . It is also used to obtain pure aluminum. When going into surgery and being put to sleep fluorine is needed. It is used in inhalation anesthetics.Furthermore fluorine is also used to mark light bulbs and in the purification of water supplies. Fluorine is a huge importance to nature and humans. It keeps our water safe to drink and shower with. Imagine without fluorine our teeth would be rotten and water supplies would be polluted. Traces of fluorine are present in bones, teeth, thyroid gland and skin. Fluorine is also said to prevents diseases from decaying the body. Ã¢â¬Å"It is a germicide, and acts as an antidote to poison, sickness, and diseaseÃ¢â¬ (fluorine and importance of nutrition). fluorine is found in a great variety of foods and provides nutrients.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Where Have You Been?Where Are You Going By Joyce Oates
1. Examine the plot of your essay. Explain the basis of reasoning. The story begins by portraying ConnieÃ¢â¬â¢s character. She is rebellious, self-centered, romantic, seductive, but lacks experience. Her life was portrayed as a girl whose only confidence was rooted from her charm and beauty. Her normal life circles around facing the mirror and making herself beautiful, being scolded by her mother, being compared to his sister, a father who donÃ¢â¬â¢t took time for her, and hanging out with her best friend. She loves to watch movies and listening to music. She meets boys but the story did not clearly portray of her having a boyfriend. That was once the constant life she had, then one day everything has changed. A stranger came in to their house when she was left alone. The stranger uttered promising words about escaping the cruelties she had at home and discovering the world where she could do everything she desires. She was fighting at deep inside at first. In the end she turned out to become a victim of a demonic character who seduced and threatened her through her weakness. . Explain the theme and historical content of the article The theme of the story tackles on abuses on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. The story also portrayed most problems associated with young ages like being unable to speak freely, and the lack of experience as a basis of making logical judgment. The historical content is closely associated with WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement. It was also based on a story about a psychopath on his early thirties known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Pied Piper of Tucson. Ã¢â¬ He loves to seduce women and then murder them. Most of her victims were teenagers in the Tucson area, for some reason they kept his secret, deliberately did not inform parents or police. Oates has been very particular in devoting some of her writings for supporting WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement. This is the response of many crusaders to rampant cases of abuses and violence Ã¢â¬â physically, emotionally, sexually against women in the past years. It was intensified in the year 1960s and early 70s and has become subjects of many debates and literature writings concerning giving equal rights and opportunities for men and women. The movement is fighting for giving women equal employment opportunities with men, freedom to speak for themselves, and balance of power in handling their relationships with families. Most of her writings were fictional portrayals of real situations and cases occurring between sexes being women as the subject of violence. Critics believed that Oates occupies a controversial position in tradition of feminist literature. She portrays most of her female characters as fearful, reliant and passive Ã¢â¬â for instance, Connie was portrayed as a young girl who has lived in the shadow of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s improper upbringing. She was always scolded by her mother and being compared to his older sister in her habitual characters and actions which her mother emphasized as indecent. That kind of situation was very miserable that sheÃ¢â¬â¢d wished sheÃ¢â¬â¢d died as a way of departing from it. She lives in fear and was unable to overcome it. Being portrayed as young at age clearly shows womenÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness that had turned them submissive and disregarded in most cases. Her mother as supreme over her portrays her position that is always searching to be heard. Being a victim of emotional abuse she ended up thinking of what is life outside her away from the family she hated. The whole story itself shows women as powerless against abusers. The story ended has a hanging ending, although she has escaped the cruelties at home but ends up at another abuserÃ¢â¬â¢s hands. While most critics have negative perceptions of her ideas about dependency of women, there are still who have defended the feminist sense in her writings. In fact, in her later works she was able to portray power of female bonds and their journey towards self discovery. 3. Offer support or criticism to the essay of your own thought. Offer support (at least TWO references). The story calls for awakening. We should not abuse every authority we have because our actions have direct effects on people around us either physically or mentally. It has rooted deep influence on its readers that it has become one of the most widely reprinted stories that have appeared on many short story compilations. In 1972, Walter Sullivan noted the story as Ã¢â¬Å"one of her most widely reprinted stories and justly so. Ã¢â¬ Awakening is, in the story's final lines, moving out into the sunlight where Arnold Friend waits: Ã¢â¬Å"My sweet little blue-eyed girl,Ã¢â¬ he said in a half-sung sigh that had nothing to do with [Connie's] brown eyes but was taken up just the same by the vast sunlit reaches of the land behind him and on all sides of himÃ¢â¬âso much land that Connie had never seen before and did not recognize except to know that she was going to it. http://www. usfca. edu/~southerr/works/film/smoothtalk. html). For Connie, it was an awakening of what is life out of home? And what is life in the real world. When treated on our present society, there are lots of individuals who became members of cruelties by those who consider themselves powerful and strong. The wise have fooled many people by their promising words and threatening. Just like how ArnoldÃ¢â¬â¢s friend uttered promis ing words and threatening to force Connie to go with her. All throughout the story, there lines were temptations have succeeded over Connie. She never listen to her mom, but instead rebel inside and wished she and her mom would better die. Her young mindÃ¢â¬â¢s desire of having fun, and her ignorant desire for romance, and be able to grow old for her to escape from being tightened have exposed her to the world of the more experienced individuals. That is how ArnoldÃ¢â¬â¢s friend met her and have started to desire for her young and desirable charm and beauty. It happens in real life; teenagers became victims of rape cases, involved in addictive vices, and do unlawful actions. The ethos of her writing was showed using real life figures: a mother, a sister, a friend, and the seducing old friend. Oates portrayed that everything that happens in our life has direct connection with the people around us. What we do and what they do have vice-versa effects on one another. The Logos of her writing was showed by presenting the demonic old friends method of seducing Connie in a logical way. He spoke of anything that Connie desired and feared that led Connie to surrender in the end. The Pathos of her writing was showed by using thrilling situations like the scene where Connie was left alone in the house and then ArnoldÃ¢â¬â¢s friend suddenly came to threat and seduce him. Connie has appeared pitiful and powerless compared to the older strangerÃ¢â¬â¢s actions.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Analysis Of Jane Eyre s The Madwoman s The Attic Essays Jane Ey
On the surface BerthaÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is seen as an obstacle to JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness with Rochester and a scandalous secret shame of RochesterÃ¢â¬â¢s. A closer examination of BerthaÃ¢â¬â¢s circumstances and how she came to be at Thornfield can conclude that her madness is simply product of being alleviated of both her wealth and independence in the male-dominated society of Victorian England. Her regression into a madwoman due in part to her confinement is carefully surmised from JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s first impression her when she is i... ...of the Victorian era and perhaps, in some ways, by having such a placid protagonist and a passionate minor antagonist could be reflective of the authors own conflict between submissiveness and rage. The madwoman in the attic, a phrase employed by theorists Gilbert and Gubar (Donaldson, 2002) as they developed an argument about what exactly the Ã¢â¬Å"Madwoman in the AtticÃ¢â¬ represented. Perhaps she embodied all the pain and rage that the author of the text felt. One can be locked away, hidden, diagnosed as mad, however, you cannot ignore the intensity of her character: her hardheartedness, sexual potency and mind make her an unforgettable character. Instead of doing away with such a burden of a person the character chooses to end her own life. If the madwoman in the attic was reflective of Bronte herself what might it mean for her to kill off her fictional passionate self?
Friday, September 27, 2019
Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 78
Assignment - Essay Example Under the Article 112, the military personnel the use, possession, manufacturing and distribution of illegal and controlled drugs or substances is prohibited. Marijuana has been classified as one of the drugs, which no servicemen are supposed to use or be in possession within the barracks (Shanor & Hogue, 2013). In the case of PTV Smokey, it was clear that he had contravened the provisions of article 122. He was not only caught using marijuana, but he was also in possession of it. For this reason, he is liable for prosecution in the martial courts. His case is admissible, in the sense that the act itself has grounds in the military laws. However, the manner in which the evidence was gathered may lead to termination of the case, as explained below: Like the civilians, the military are protected by the Fourth Amendment constitutional provisions (Shanor & Hogue, 2013). Under this, Ã¢â¬Ëunreasonable searches or seizuresÃ¢â¬â¢ are not allowed. Any evidence gathered through this illegal means is inadmissible in the court martial. Critically analyzing the case of STV Smokey, it is clear that the Platoon Sergeant did not have a search warrant that would have facilitated his search and seizure of marijuana. The whole process was flawed, including the way he forced himself in the premises of the suspect. Under the MRE 314 and 315, it is made clear that the Bill of Rights also applies fully to all the military officers (Laurence, 2010). This means that they enjoy the rights to privacy just like the civilians. STV Smokey was right when he informed Platoon Sergeant that he had violated his rights to privacy by forcing himself in the house. This was irrespective of whether there was need to check the possession of the drugs. Prior to obtaining a search warrant, the investigating officer must prove that there is indeed a probable cause. This refers to the grounds upon which the search has to be conducted. The case provided, there was enough ground for
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Artificial Demand Creation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Artificial Demand Creation - Essay Example In advanced and affluent societies because the intrinsic demands of the consumers have been already met, there is an artificial demand which is generated by the corporate houses. This is done in a race to out do each other and sells their goods which are mainly consumer oriented products; however this statement of Galbraith goes against the theory of consumer demand and behavior. This paper initially examines the classical theory of consumer demand and the intrinsic demands of consumers. It explains the dependence effect as given by Galbraith in his book The Affluent Society and then later looks into the reasons why Galbraith rejected the theory of consumer behavior for affluent markets. Classical Theory of Consumer Demand The theory of consumer demand is defined as the analysis of demand with regard to consumer behavior. The theory predicts the demand under varying factors, such as price, income, and substitute goods. Opportunities and preferences are the two major components of consumer demand. The opportunity is, what the consumer can afford keeping the budget constraint and the preference is, what and how much the consumer likes a product keeping the utility constraint. The classical theory of consumer demand justifies the production of any goods or services on the premise that demand for these goods or services exist. It also goes on to explain that these demands or needs are not limited and their urgency does not appreciably diminish with satisfaction of these demands. The statement that the demands do not become less urgent even when they are satisfied may itself be in contrast to the common sensibilities of many, but it is true because these demands are not the basic physical demands, but these are derived demands which we inherit from the society that we live in and they continuously grow. The Dependence Effect John Kenneth Galbraith (1958) in his book The Affluent Society explains that the needs or demands of consumers in the developed markets are being created by the process that satisfies these demands. It is a known fact that the psychological needs take over, after the physical or the intrinsic needs of food and shelter are satisfied. These psychological needs are also the basis of all the other development which takes place in our societies. The classical theory suggests that the urgency of demands fuel production, however the demands of a sports car or fast food cannot be urgent as they are not the basic demands of an individual. These demands are the derived demands and have been created by the process of over production itself. Advertising and salesmanship act as a catalyst to this entire process and ensure demand creation to dizzying levels. Hence the urgency of demand cannot be used to defend the case of over production. The Dependence Effect therefore is the direct relationship between the production of goods and the demand which is generated for these very goods. In the affluent societies as the basic demands are mostly met the consumer is open to persuasion. The consumer falls prey to a large variety of goods that are made available to him, all of varying quality. As the production of these goods increases so does the expenditure on demand generation. The major methods that are employed for demand generation are advertising
Lies and Interpersonal Communication in Win, Win Movie Review
Lies and Interpersonal Communication in Win, Win - Movie Review Example MikeÃ¢â¬â¢s practice is Ã¢â¬Å"slowÃ¢â¬ and does not earn him enough income. He is having a tough time paying the bills, which is made obvious when he refuses to call someone to take care of the dead tree in front of their property that is threatening to fall on their house. The plumbing and the heating system in his office need repair badly. His back-up system is malfunctioning and he refuses to call an IT person because it would cost money. He wants to shield his wife, Jackie, and their daughters, Abby and Stella, from the problem. Whether by accident or by choice, Mike ends up concocting a series of lies that landed him with more responsibilities and troubles. This paper will assess whether the consequences of MikeÃ¢â¬â¢s lies actually justify his decisions. It is said that lies are often treated Ã¢â¬Å"as the most efficient solution to interpersonal communication problemsÃ¢â¬ (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.309). Deception is usually considered as the right thing to do in circumstances when one desires to avoid conflict, avoid distress, and protect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self and/or livelihood, among other acceptable reasons (Levine, Kim, & Hamel, 2010, p.273). These three reasons can be seen in the film Ã¢â¬Å"Win, WinÃ¢â¬ as Mike tries to protect his family from enduring the problems he is currently facing. First, Mike tries to avoid conflict by not telling Jackie that he became LeoÃ¢â¬â¢s guardian. This is to hide from her the fact that he took guardianship for the $1508.00 monthly commission. He also tries to avoid conflict by not informing anyone that he deceptively placed Leo in a nursing home despite the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to stay in his own house. He even openly lied to Leo by telling him that it was the judgeÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to place Leo in a nursing home for some time. Second, Mike tries to avoid distress by not telling Jackie about his real financial status. He hides from her the fact that he cannot call someone to cut down the tre e because he is worried about paying for labor. He tries to tell Jackie that he will cut down the tree with the help of his friend, Terry, but Jackie does not agree with him because she does not know the reason for this. Third, Mike tries to protect himself and his livelihood by telling the judge that he can keep Leo in his home. He lies to the state and the court by saying that he can do a better job in ensuring that LeoÃ¢â¬â¢s will is implemented more properly if he will be the guardian instead of the state. These lies are high stake lies because they hold severe consequences (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.309) for Mike and the people he lied to. To compare, low stake lies are simple lies that usually do not affect the people involved (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.310). For example, lying about a favorite color is a low stake lie. On the other hand, high stake lies affect the people involved in a big way (Camden, Motley, & Wilson, 1984, p.309). This is the case for Mike Ã¢â¬â¢s lies. Had he not lied to avoid conflict and distress, the normally calm household he has might be impacted negatively. Mike would also have been pressured to keep Leo in his home, which technically defeats the purpose for why he volunteered to be LeoÃ¢â¬â¢s guardian in the first place. Obviously, keeping Leo in his home would cost not only more money but also more time from Leo. Furthermore, had Mike not lied to protect himself and his livelihood, he would have gone through more inner turmoil in thinking about how to continue his practice. The effects of MikeÃ¢â¬â¢s lies leak through his non-verbal communication. As a viewer, one could immediately sense through his actions that he is trying to control the situation that his lies created. A good example is in how MikeÃ¢â¬â¢
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Organizational Policy and Strategy of Southwest Airlines Case Study
Organizational Policy and Strategy of Southwest Airlines - Case Study Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that to meet the challenges of the time, the company exuded confidence by not only increasing the number of flights but it also went in for employment for more workers. This action of the company provided it with the competitive edge because the other airlines were not only reducing the flights but they had also laid off a considerable number of workers. This resulted in a significant increase in its market position and at the same time, considerably improved the management relations with the labor unions. The major factor that led to SouthwestÃ¢â¬â¢s success was its policy of acknowledging the human behavior and maintain non-attrition by not laying off the staff. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy was to increase the number of customer service agents so that the passengers could get improved personal service and emotional support and security at the crisis time. The organizational culture of the company promoted the concept of a Ã¢â¬Ëbig fami lyÃ¢â¬â¢ and therefore the workforce was more conscientious and worked harder during the tough time which led to the improved performance of the company. After the probation period of six months, all the employees of the airlines become eligible for Ã¢â¬ËSouthwestÃ¢â¬â¢s profit-sharing planÃ¢â¬â¢ that greatly motivates the workforce. Another factor that contributed towards the success was its better relations with the labor unions. The role of the union has become critical to the wider interest of the human capital employed across the organizations. The collective bargaining of the union has greatly facilitated the welfare of the workforce and has promoted their interest amongst the management.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Segmentation in the Holiday Market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words
Segmentation in the Holiday Market - Essay Example illustrate the importance of market segmentation in holiday market, this paper will cite examples on how different companies segment their market through different methods and offer a specialized product for each segment. An empirical example of this is Tourism Victoria which aims to market Victoria to international travelers. In order to properly address the needs of its differing market and deliver maximum customer value to each customer, it has used market segmentation. The whole market of Tourism Victoria ranges from local Australian residents to international travelers. However, to identify the most lucrative groups and sub-groups in the market it had to classify customers into different sub-groups according to their unique characteristics and target only those profitable niches. Afterwards, the company was able to come up with three major target market segments. Methods of Market Segmentation In its market segmentation process, the company utilized three market segmentation techniques-Roy Morgan Value Segments, MOSAIC, and life cycle. Roy Morgan Value Segments Roy Morgan Value Segments is developed by Colin Benjamin in partnership with Roy Morgan Research Center. This technique is a proprietary methodology which divides the holiday market in terms of customer preferences, needs and motivations. This methodology largely relies in the employment of psychographic data which supplies information on the "deeper drivers of choice" through an evaluation of behaviors in addition to demographics data such as age, income, etc (Domestic Market Segmentation 3). The rationale of using Roy Morgan Value segments is for the company to "distinguish the market segment with highest yield potential and identify their value needs (Domestic Market Segmentation 4)." The wide... This paper stresses that the holiday market is comprised of vast and diverse consumer groups. To further illustrate the importance of market segmentation in holiday market, this paper will cite examples on how different companies segment their market through different methods and offer a specialized product for each segment. The author talks tyhat the whole market of Tourism Victoria ranges from local Australian residents to international travelers. However, to identify the most lucrative groups and sub-groups in the market it had to classify customers into different sub-groups according to their unique characteristics and target only those profitable niches. Afterwards, the company was able to come up with three major target market segments. The use of relevant marketing models in ensuring an efficient marketing plan for the company is practiced by almost all companies worldwide. These marketing models become an effective tool in diagnosing the marketing needs of a firm at the same time that they also convey the marketing needs of a particular product or product line. This report makes a conclusion that an effective marketing strategy is often the key to the profitability and marketability of a product. In this past faced world, the key is in knowing your customers and efficiently serving them according to their needs. An analysis of the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ lifestyle, attitude, preference, and behavior is very essential in crafting an effective marketing strategy not just in the holiday market but in other industries. Likewise, it is also important to consider the life cycle of a product in making right marketing mix.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Declaration of Independence Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Declaration of Independence - Research Paper Example Onuf noticed that America was undergoing a problem of identity. Jefferson and other parties had worked hard to realize an independent America only to be coupled with a weak articulated national government. Delegates from Virginia came together to draft the declaration. This lead to its confirmation where it was backed by an undisputed voting. As an excellent orator and writer, Jefferson decided to write the declaration in July 4, 1776. Through his commitment, he was elected to serve his people as the governor of Virginia. He managed to serve Americans and his family, where he bore several children (Fox, 1948). Place and time Ã¢â¬Å"The US Declaration for IndependenceÃ¢â¬ was presented in July 4, 1776 at Ã¢â¬Å"Virginia. This was possible after there was a unanimous acceptance of the declaration. The article has since received acceptance in both America and the world over. Prior knowledge This journal was written during the American Revolution when Americans felt it was necessary t o resolve their political issues. Through the constitution, members of different states sought to remain united through establishing justice and liberty among the different states. The declaration was meant to synthesis and assist address constitutional issues (Jefferson, 9). These issues had earlier been argued by historians who left them unconcluded. Thus, the scholars took a long interpretive focus to ensure issues of governance and the constitution were addressed. In order to address the pressing issues, it was necessary to eliminate the presence of French persons in North America. The conclusion of this advancement occurred after the inclusion of the British victory after the war that lasted seven years (Onuf, 73). Anglo-Americans failed to distinguish between foreign and domestic relations. They focused a lot on local matters, disregarding other states and their relations with them. For this reason, Americans failed to claim membership in the international community. Audience Onuf (73) targets the Americans as his audience, seeking to enlighten them on the need for pursuing their constitutional rights. He further encourages them to focus on organizational and issues of international politics because of their status as an independent country (Onuf, 72). Reason The main reason for writing this article was to enlighten Americans on the importance of advocating for their constitutional issues, which they could only access through independence (Jefferson, 6). Onuf (75) urges Americans to be watchful and ensure they repossess their membership from the international community. Onuf (75) argues that the country seeks to gain access to great opportunities to explore foreign policy. He refers his audience to the present state of the world and concludes that history contributed greatly to it. He seeks to urge Americans to enhance their issues of nation-state and identity. He cautions that inability to remain vigilant in the issues of state is vital to exercise issu es of sovereignty and capabilities of the state to embrace the international system (Tewell, 82). The Main Idea Jefferson (7) wants his audience to know the importance of declaring independence for a country. He briefly describes the circumstances under which the Americans decided to unite as a single state. He later outlines the pertinent issues outlined in the constitution, which
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Complexometric Determination of Water Hardnesss Essay Example for Free
Complexometric Determination of Water Hardnesss Essay Introduction/Background: This lab was about determining water hardness. Water hardness is the amount of metal ions in the water. The most common found ion in the water is calcium ions and typically with a charge of +2. Water hardness plays a big significance in our daily life because to many metal ions in our drinking water can have adverse effects on our body. You can measure the water hardness by EDTA titrations. EDTA is a disodium salt that stands for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and it is a chelating agent. Chelation is the process of a ligand forms a complex with a metal ion. Eriochrome Black T is an indicator you add to the water sample that will turn the water pink if metal ions exist. Through the process of titration, carefully adding EDTA to the water sample with the Eriochrome Black T will cause a chemical reaction to occur, slowly changing the water color from pink to violet and then violet to a light blue which will be the end of the chemical reaction. Once the titration is complete you can calculate your water hardness. Above in the formula V represents the actual delivered volume of Na2EDTA solution and M is your actual molarity. Procedures: Start by preparing 500mL of 0.004 disodium EDTA solution. This is what will be added to the buret. Next take a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask and add 10.00mL of standardized calcium and 30mL of deionized water. Place a magnetic stir-bar in the flask and set on top of a piece of white paper on a magnetic stirrer. After place 3mL of ammonia/ammonium chloride buffer (pH10) inside the flask and let it stir for thirty seconds. Lastly add four drops of Eriochrome Black T indicator to the solution which will turn it a pink color. Begin titration and watch as the color changes from pink to violet and then violet to a light blue color. Record the data when the color turns a light blue and repeat the process two more times. Fill the buret with the same 500mL of 0.004 disodium EDTA solution. Take 25.00mL of an unknown water sample and add it to a 250mL Erlenmeyer flask. Mix in 20mL of deionized water. Set a magnetic stir-bar inside the solution and place on the magnetic stirrer. Next add 3mL of ammonia/ammonium chloride buffer (pH10). After thirty seconds of stirring add four drops of the Eriochrome Back T indicator and watch as the solution turns pink. Begin your titration by slowly adding small droplets of the 0.004 disodium EDTA solution. The color will slowly change to a violet color and then to a blue color which will be the stopping point. Record the data and repeat two more times. With the data collected calculates the hardness of each sample, then the average water hardness of all three samples, and lastly the precision of each trial. Compare your data to the expected range of a local cities water hardness. Results and Discussion: The first three titrations involved the known Calcium stock, titration 1 used 22.91ml of Na2EDTA solution before the titration complete. The second Titration used 21.91ml while the third and final used 21.55ml of solution. During the procedure a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask was used as well as a 50ml burette, the buret was filled with our Na2EDTA solution while the flask was filled with 30ml of DI water, 3ml of ammonia, and 4 drops of an indicator, in this case Eriochrome Black T. Experimental error was calculated by taking the sum of all absolute deviations/3 than divided by the mean concentration of Na2EDTA, in this case the mean concentration was .00452M, and lastly, multiplied by 1000 to get the answer in PPT. Table 1 below shows the readings of both solutions before and after titration. The mean concentration of these titrations is 0.00452, This figure was used to find the estimated precision which came out to 23.270% off of 100% meaning the experiment was 76.73% accurate. Finally the volume of the unknown was calculated to find the ppm for each titration and the mean of all three titrations was used to find the estimated precision of the unknown in ppm. The mean in ppm for the unknown came to 212ppm, this number was plugged into the equation for estimated precision which is the sum of all absolute value deviations/ number of trials, all of which is divide by the mean and multiplied by 1000ppt. The final figure came out to 25.2% off of 100% meaning that the experiment was 74.8% accurate. Conclusion: In conclusion the water hardness of a solution can be found by titrating a known solution containing metal ions and using a chelating agent such as EDTA to determine the impurities of each of the water samples. Also, using the data collected from each titration the concentration and mean can be found from each titration and used to determine the water hardness in ppm. The estimated precision of this experiment can be found by running multiple titrations on the same sample more than one time. The results obtained in this experiment include a mean concentration for the Calcium stock of .00452M, and an estimated precision of 76.73% and the average water hardness was 400.39ppm. The estimated precision for the unknown was 74.8% and an average water hardness of 204ppm. In this experiment 500ml of a known solution EDTA was prepared; a 10ml pipet was used to transfer a standard calcium ion stock solution into a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask. 30ml of DI water was added to the flask and the contents were than stirred using a magnetic stirrer and stirring rod. 3ml of Ammonia was added to the flask mixed for a few seconds underneath the fume hood and 4 drops of an indicator was added, in this case Eriochrome Black T. The contents of the flask were stirred for thirty seconds before titration began, as the titration progressed, the color changed from pink to violet and finally to a sky blue color indicating that the titration was complete. This process was completed with minor changes for the Unknown #141, 25ml of the unknown was placed in the flask and 20ml of Di water was used rather than 30ml, the rest of the titration however, used the same steps as above. Work Cited Klenck, Thomas. How It Works: Water Softener. Popular Mechanics 1 Aug. 1998: n. pag. Web. Our Lab instruction sheet
Friday, September 20, 2019
Reflection On ICT Eduction
Reflection On ICT Eduction Literacy is the learning to read and write proficiently while digital literacy is the ability to use different digital tools for learning in young children (Kazakoff, 2012; Green et al, 2006). Digital storytelling is more effective to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning rather than the traditional way as it can support the current trends in teaching and learning. Through this rationale, it can be seen that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s writing skill and comprehension improved as she had fun through the process of creating the digital story. This rationale also discussed the implication of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the early years setting, the planning and the usage of digital story in the early years setting with the supports of policies, theories and curriculums that can develop childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy, communication and language skills. ICT can be defined as anything that enable us to receive information, to interact with each other or to bring impact on the environment using electronic or digital device (Bolstad, 2004). There are many devices and equipment that can be use in an early years setting to encourage the usage of ICT such as cameras, computers, programmable toys and many more. ICT had brought an impact to the children learning and development, remarkably in their literacy development as children nowadays are living in a challenging and advance environment (Roney, 2008). Children should be provided with opportunities, for instance, through creating digital stories to develop Ã¢â¬Ëtechnological literacyÃ¢â¬â¢ to ensure their activeness and competence in their environment (Shah and Godiyal, 2000). Significantly in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), involving technology in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and development can support the progression of the children and also achieving the learning goals (Df E, 2012a). The synthesis report by Hatherly et al (2010) had shown the positive implication of ICTs for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy development. The report stated that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s activities that are based on ICTs could develop childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy, language and communication skill. Other than that, the use of ICTs can motivate children to speak and engage themselves in conversation and to tell and share their experiences through various ways, for example, through digital story-telling that would facilitate childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy development. Through observation, I chose a child who love to draw because I wanted to develop her literacy skill by supporting her through her interest in drawing using story-telling as making connection with drawing to writing can allow children to understand how writing can relate to their images and also their visual imagery (NYSUT, 2008). Before I started doing anything with the child, I asked for the willingness of the child to participate in this assignment as her opinions and views are to be considered first according to UNCRC Article 12 (UNICEF, n.d). I met her parents where we discussed about the resource plan and how this will help her learning and development. The discussion lead me to the understanding that the child was not exposed much to electronic devices at home. However, they allowed me to work with their child and also agreed in helping the child to familiarise herself with the device after the discussion. I understand that this could be advantageous for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s lea rning as involving parents in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education can bring many benefits including improvements in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s educational achievement and also increasing parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence in helping their child at home (DCSF, 2008). Through the discussion also, I decided to make the resource with tablet and audio recorder as it will allow the child to navigate the device better than by operating a mouse that might be hard for new learners (Pierangelo and Giuliani, 2008). I started telling different types of stories to give the child a better understanding on how a story should be. Telling stories to children can enhance their language learning by introducing them to different languages and narrative styles such as the storiesÃ¢â¬â¢ prologue, climax and epilogue (Whitehead, 2010). I gave the child the freedom to choose what kind of story she wanted to write and we both agreed on writing an imaginary story inspired by the movie Ã¢â¬ËFrozenÃ¢â¬â¢ according to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s interest as practitioners should support children to write about things that interest them (DfE, 2012a). She was able to start planning her story without much difficulties but she faced problem in using the tablet. At the beginning, the child had a hard time trying to use the application in the tablet but I did not help her immediately. I gave her the time to explore the device herself and after a few trial and error and some guidance, she managed to navigate the device suc cessful. As accordance to the Montessori Method Ã¢â¬Ëcontrol of errorÃ¢â¬â¢, children learning from their mistake themselves can help them to develop a skill and knowledge more proficiently as their confidence and self-esteem increased (Lawrence, 1998). Throughout the process of illustrating the story, I took up the role as a facilitator. When the child had difficulties in continuing the story, I used open ended question like Ã¢â¬Å"What should you say if someone gave you something?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"How did the girl felt?Ã¢â¬ According to Piaget, the role of an educator is to aid the children to come to their own understanding and asking questions instead of telling the answers and this could improve childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s comprehension and vocabulary (Chamberlin, 2014; Teachnology Inc, n,d). The child wanted to incorporate fantasy element in her story where the snowman has the ability to talk and I strongly agreed. Encouraging childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination can develop their social skills and improve their confidence in learning or acquiring literacy skill (The ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest Association, 2014). I started to involve myself more in the making of digital story when the child started to write text on each drawing as practitioners should Ã¢â¬Å"support and scaffold individual childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s writing as opportunities ariseÃ¢â¬ (DfE, 2012a:31). I wanted to know the childÃ¢â¬â¢s writing skill so that I can support her to reach her maximum potential in literacy within her Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). ZPD refers to the distance between what a child can do independently and what they could potentially do with the support of more knowledgeable adults and peers (Tools of the Mind, 2014). For example, I provided the child with short stories and few wordsÃ¢â¬â¢ flashcards related to her story that she can use. From the few options, she was able to choose which words she wanted to use, for instance, the word Ã¢â¬ËbuildÃ¢â¬â¢ instead of Ã¢â¬ËmakeÃ¢â¬â¢. There were a few spelling error where she invented herself through the sounds of the words but I encourage the chil d to continue without correcting her because childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s invented spelling can reflects their attempts in connecting the relationships of languageÃ¢â¬â¢s sounds to the alphabetic system (Whitehead, 2010). I could see the childÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence in writing increased when she write without looking hesitant. Through this, I realised the child is developing positively in literacy as the childÃ¢â¬â¢s writing skill matched the early learning goals in EYFS where she could write simple sentences that can be read and could spell some words correctly and some phonetically reasonable (DfE, 2012b). Subsequently, I put all her completed drawings together using PowerPoint because it is an easy and accessible software where users can create and design their slides without much difficulties and it is suitable for new learners (Boundless, n.d). The child was very excited as it was her first time seeing a story in a digital form, moreover, she was involved in creating it. PowerPoint has the function where the child can easily choose the animation/effect that allowed her to portray her story better. For example, the child chose the curtain opening effect to display the starting of her story. The software effects that are used in a digital story enable children to link their story effectively and demonstrate understanding of their own story where children get to improve their reading comprehension (Vogel, 2007). Through the attractive and interactive way of presenting the story telling using the effects, I believe it will support the childÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy learning through the linking of words to image as according to Bruner, children from the age 1-6 years in his second mode of representation, iconic, the information that children had learned is stored in the form of images (McLeod, 2008). I also chose to use voice recorder to record the childÃ¢â¬â¢s voice because Ã¢â¬Å"writing with real voice has the power to make you pay attention and understandÃ¢â¬ (Elbow, 1981:299 cited in Nilsson, 2010). Voice recording had allow the child to express things she cannot write in words (Nilsson, 2010), therefore the child felt no barrier to explore her own vocabulary and I can see this when she said words that she did not write in her story. The child wanted to put music alongside with her voice and I agreed as it will display her emotions and expressions when she was creating the story. After completing the editing, I played the slides and praised her for her great work as treating her story interesting and reread it again can show the child that her effort was worth i t (Lawrence, 1998). Reflecting on this experience, I felt that the making and the usage of this resource alongside with the theories and approaches that I followed brought a positive result in enhancing the childÃ¢â¬â¢s language and emergent literacies and also allowing the child to understand better about ICTs. Through reflecting, I realised I should include more children in creating the resource as the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s collaboration could encourage the exchange of knowledge in literacy happen during the discussion and planning to create the digital story. I also understand that digital storytelling is a fun yet effective way to support childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning because it enable the child to create stories that interest her and expanding her scope of learning in a modernized way. Now that I understand the impact of ICT in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning, I will continue to incorporate ICT in my future activities with the children but with larger group of children so that children from diverse backgroun d can also have the opportunity to experience and learn from the usage of the technology. List of References Bolstad, R. (2004) The role and potential of ICT in early childhood education. Available at: http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/ict/4983 (Accessed: 29 November 2014). Boundless (n.d) The Advantages and Disadvantages of Powerpoint. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/preparing-and-using-visual-aids-16/using-powerpoint-and-alternatives-successfully-85/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-powerpoint-323-5654/ (Accessed: 2 December 2014). Chamberlin, J. (2014) Bringing books to life. Available at: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2012/10/books.aspx (Accessed: 29 November 2014). Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2008) The Impact of Parental Involvement on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Education. Nottingham: Crown. Department for Education (DfE) (2012a) Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage. London: Crown. Department for Education (DfE) (2012b) Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage. London: Crown. Green, S., Peterson, R., Lewis, J. (2006) Ã¢â¬ËLanguage and Literacy Promotion in Early Childhood Settings: A survey of Center-Based Practices.Ã¢â¬â¢ Early Childhood Research and Practice, 8(1), 27-47. Hatherly, A., Ham, V., Evans, L. (2010) Effective Learning in Early Childhood Education? The Impact of the ECE ICT PL Programme: A Synthesis Report. Available at: http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/ECE/79138/1.-childrens-learning (Accessed: 30 November 2014). Kazakoff, E. (2012) Toward Defining Digital Literacy in Early Childhood. Available at: www.eetcconference.org/wp/Digital_Literacy_Early_Childhood.pdf (Accessed: 2 December 2014). Lawrence, L. (1998) Montessori Read Write. London: Ebury Press. McLeod, S. (2008) Bruner. Available at: http://www.simplypsychology.org/bruner.html (Accessed: 29 November 2014). New York State United Teachers (NYSUT) (2008) Ã¢â¬ËHow Drawing in Conjunction with Writing Contributes to Literacy.Ã¢â¬â¢ Journal of Best Practices in Education, 1(6), 36-43. Nilsson, M. (2010) Ã¢â¬ËDeveloping Voice in Digital Storytelling through Creativity, Narrative and Multimodality.Ã¢â¬â¢ International Journal of Media, Technology Lifelong Learning, 6(2), 148-160. Pierangelo, R. and Giuliani, G. (2008) Teaching Students for Autism Spectrum Disorders. California: Corwin Press. Roney, J. (2008) Digital Story Telling for Language and Culture Learning. Available at: http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/2812 (Accessed: 29 November 2014). Shah, A. and Godiyal, S. (2000) Ã¢â¬ËICT in the Early Years: Balancing the risks and benefits.Ã¢â¬â¢ Journal of Computing in Early Childhood, 3(1), 15-30. Teachnology Inc (n.d) PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory on Constructivism. Available at: http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/piaget (Accessed: 29 November 2014). The ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest Association (2014) 5 Benefits of Encouraging Your ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s Imagination. Available at: http://www.rd.com/advice/parenting/encourage-your-childs-imagination/# (Acccesed: 30 November 2014). Tools of the Mind (2014) Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding. Available at: http://www.toolsofthemind.org/philosophy/scaffolding/ (Accessed: 28 November 2014). UNICEF (n.d) United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf (Accessed: 27 November 2014). Vogel, J. (2007) Research Supporting Digital Storytelling. Available at: http://courseweb.lis.illinois.edu/~jevogel2/lis506/research.html (Accessed: 2 December 2014). Whitehead, M. (2010) Language and Literacy in the Early Years 0-7. 4th edn. London: SAGE Publications. 1
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Time Cat by Lloyd Alexander Essay -- Time Cat Lloyd Alexander Outline
Time Cat by Lloyd Alexander Type of story: Fictional Setting: 1.Time: Historical period: the story jumps from different times. While traveling though they go from 2700b.c. to 55b.c. to 998b.c. to 411b.c. to 998a.d. to 1468 to 1555 to 1588 to 1600 to 1775. 2. Place: Geographical location: This story as well as switching from time to time it also switches from place to place. While traveling they go the places of Egypt, Rome and Britain, Ireland, Japan, Italy, Peru, The Isle of Man, and finally to America. Scenes: The story starts out in JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s room and from there it goes to Egypt where Gareth and Jason go down the Nile river and to a the pharaohÃ¢â¬â¢s palace. From there they Rome and Britain where the spend there time out in forest along seas, in kingÃ¢â¬â¢s castles, in tribal areas. Main Characters: 1.Name: Jason Physical Features: Jason is tall and skinny; he has short brown hair and deep blue eyes. 2. Personality description: In the beginning of the story Jason is laying in bed and crying because of what a bad day he has been having so that probably shows that he is a sensitive boy. He has a large imagination, this he shows because he does believe his cat (Gareth would talk to him if he wanted to. He is rough and is easily bugged but other than that Jason is sweet and cares dearly for the ones he loves. How does this character change through out the story?: Jason has no change to him, he stills believes in what he believed in before, his attitude is the same; he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t grow kinder but also not meaner. Jason is the same boy he was in the beginning. Character #2 Name: Gareth Physical Description: Gareth is a black cat with orange eyes, Sometimes, when he hunched his shoulders and put down his ears, he looked like an owl. When he stretched, he looked like a trickle of oil or a pair of black silk pajamas. When he sat on a window ledge, his eyes half-shut and his tail curled around him, he looked like a secret. Personality Description: Gareth is a smart, loving cat. He seems to be a problem solver or conflict solver. He has a sly personality to him or like, if you were to just meet him then youÃ¢â¬â¢d be very cautious around him because of the way he seems to be. The Problem of the Story: There are a few conflicts to this story, every time Jason and Gareth go to a new place ... ...lly the conflict of this story is the people believe Gareth is a witches slave. Mistress UrsulinaÃ¢â¬â¢s problem: Miss UrsulinaÃ¢â¬â¢s problem was that the people of the village believed that she was a witch and right when she was caught she should burned to death. 9.America in the year of 1775: NO CONFLICT. The Plot: 1. Jason is sitting in his bed frustrated because of the horrible day he has and then out of nowhere his cat, Gareth, begins to talk to him. 2. Jason and Gareth travel to Egypt where the meet the pharaoh, Neter-Khet, who they give a valuable lesson to. 3. Jason and Gareth travel to Ireland where they meet the beautiful Diahan who introduces them to Sucat (the herdsman), the magician, and her father, the king. 4. Jason tries proving to the king that his cat is much more useful than the magician in keeping the mice away and does not have to use magic and will not have to be paid. 5. Jason and Gareth have to go home and they have to say good-bye because Gareth tells Jason that he will never be able to speak to him again. 6. Jason wakes to realize that all had happened with Gareth and traveling was a dream. THE END!!!
Commentary on My Writing :: Papers
Commentary on My Writing The text I have written is a letter to a writer in the tabloid newspaper "The Sun". This text is written in a style aimed at an older reader who is qiute educated with the age varying from 30-50 years of age, or a perosn who has similar opioions on some tabloid newspaper articles as the person I have presented myself as. Unlike my first piece, my second piece entitled "extracts from moments in time" is not opinionated, although the sublect is the same, both pieces are presented very differently with the content, audience and purpose in mind. I chose the topic of how the media intrudes on the lives of celebrities, and both texts explore this subject. The second text is in an autobiography style, which explores the feelings of a celebrity on a personal level. This piece is aimed at people from the age of 18-30, because it involves some issues that I feel some people of that age might be able to relate to. To begin with I will look at my first piece. My first piece is highly influenced by one of my inspirational pieces and in it I have included as one of the main topics of arguement quotes form that piece. The formality of this piece is very formal, this is shown by the layout of the letter and the inclusion of of a return address in the top right hand corner. I have used standard english in this peice, which is also another reason for why it is aimed at qiute an educated reader. I have also included some complex syntax which a younger or less educated redaree might find difficult to understand: " I believe that you Sir do not respect many people, or maybe you're acknowledgement of the pain you cause runs so thin that you do not have any idea why I am writing to you, and in such a tone as the one I carry." The use of the complex sentence used above also emphasis's the writers feelings and what is being said.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Famine Relief Essay -- Article Analysis
In response to the recent failure of the international community to prevent the famine crisis in the Horn of Africa since July 2011, Suzanne Dvorak the chief executive of Save the Children wrote that, Ã¢â¬Å"We need to provide help now. But we cannot forget that these children are wasting away in a disaster that we could - and should - have preventedÃ¢â¬ she added, Ã¢â¬Å"The UN estimates that every $1 spent in prevention saves $7 in emergency spending.Ã¢â¬ (Dvorak, 2011). Many people who read such statement wonder about our obligation towards famine relief, and ask, whether we are morally obliged to spend one dollar in order to prevent such a crisis or not. Forty years ago, Peter Singer answered this question in his article Famine, Affluence, and Morality; Singer suggested, Ã¢â¬Å"we should prevent bad occurrences unless, to do so, we had to sacrifice something morally significantÃ¢â¬ (C&M, 827). However, different philosophers and writers have criticized his view and the general idea to help the poor. In this paper, I will argue against two articles which were written against SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s view, and against helping the poor countries in general. I will argue against John ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s article Famine Relief and the Ideal Moral Code (1974 ) ,and Garrett HardinÃ¢â¬â¢s article Lifeboat Ethics: the Case Against Helping the Poor ( 1976); I will show that both articles are exaggerating the negative consequences of aiding the poor, as well as building them on false assumptions. Both Arthur and Hardin are promoting the self-interest without considering the rights of others, and without considering that giving for famine relief means giving life to many children. A Case against John Arthur In the article Famine Relief and the Ideal Moral Cod... ... Friedman, U. (2011, July 19). What It took for the U.N to declare famine in Somalia. Retrieved from http://www.theatlanticwire.com/global/2011/07/what-it-took-un-declare-famine-somalia/40152/ Hardin, G. (1974, September ). Lifeboat Ethics: the Case Against Helping the Poor. Retrieved fromhttp://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_lifeboat_ethics_case_against_helping_poor.html Montgomery, K. (n.d.). The Demographic Transition. Retrieved on August 4, 2011 from http://www.marathon.uwc.edu/geography/demotrans/demtran.htm. White, J. (2009). Contemporary Moral Problems [pp360]. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=dcK6-h1ngtcC&pg=PA357&dq=Consumption+,+global+warming+and+famine&hl=en&ei=diw7TsOyGoSisQLK_N35Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&sqi=2&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Consumption%20%2C%20global%20warming%20and%20famine&f=false.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Ms. Beyer CDEV 8-930am 16 Oct. 2012 Group Oral Presentation Topic: ADHD is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination. For these problems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must be out of the normal range for a child's age and development. Symptoms The symptoms of ADHD fall into three groups: Lack of attention (inattentiveness) Hyperactivity Impulsive behavior (impulsivity) Some children with ADHD primarily have the inattentive type.Others may have a combination of types. Those with the inattentive type are less disruptive and are more likely to not be diagnosed with ADHD. Inattentive symptoms Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork Has difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace Has difficulty organizing tasks and activitiesAvoids or dislikes tasks that r equire sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork) Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasks or activities Is easily distracted Is often forgetful in daily activities Hyperactivity symptoms: Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations Has difficulty playing quietly Is often Ã¢â¬Å"on the go,Ã¢â¬ acts as if Ã¢â¬Å"driven by a motor,Ã¢â¬ talks excessively Impulsivity symptoms:Blurts out answers before questions have been completed Has difficulty awaiting turn Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games) Key Terms ADHD- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Research techniques Finding Causes and better treatments. Behavior management. Time-out and reward systems can help a child with ADHD learn appropriate behaviors for the classroom and home. Parent training in behavior management skills is conducted during a series of 6 to 1 2 counseling sessions of 1 to 2 hours a week.Social skills training. These techniques help the child learn to be less aggressive and impulsive, to manage anger, and to behave in a more socially acceptable way. Counseling, including family therapy. All household members can benefit from learning methods to deal effectively with ADHD behavior. Medications The most common type of medication used for treating ADHD is called a Ã¢â¬Å"stimulant. Ã¢â¬ Although it may seem unusual to treat ADHD with a medication considered a stimulant, it actually has a calming effect on children with ADHD. Evidence of topicADHD research is the expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain imaging, and behavioral research is leading to a better understanding of the causes of the disorder, how to prevent it, and how to develop more effective treatments for all age groups. Focus Ã¢â¬â Proven Natural ADHD Remedies for people of all ages. Resources used Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Impl ications for Theories of Diagnosis Stephen V. Faraone Current Directions in Psychological Science , Vol. 9, No. 1 (Feb. , 2000), pp. 33-36 Reseach base resources on specific disabilities. Dr. Barbara Smith & Kyrie Dragoo Research Analysts, NICHCY
Monday, September 16, 2019
My Landlady’s Yard
In his essay, Ã¢â¬Å"My LandladyÃ¢â¬â¢s Yard,Ã¢â¬ Dagoberto Gilb seems to be writing about a climate and culture that he is both very familiar with and also very fond of, as he is in fact Ã ½ Mexican and lives in Austin, Texas. His landlady seems to be in some form of denial regarding her surroundings, which is evident in her attempt to grow grass and Ã¢â¬Å"YankeeÃ¢â¬ plants in a desert climate. I get the impression that the author is implying that his landlady is a Ã¢â¬Å"YankeeÃ¢â¬ but it is rather indirect so I cannot tell for certain. Through his statement that his landlady wants green grass in the middle of the desert, I think Gilb is implying the Proverb Ã¢â¬Å"The grass is always greener on the other side of the fenceÃ¢â¬ and by doing so, he is saying that his landlady wants what she canÃ¢â¬â¢t have. It makes me wonder if perhaps she had to live in that house at one time and she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to live there. The author states that she lived there as a young mother and wife. I picture a young woman who is trying to make the most of her domestic imprisonment, living in a place that is very foreign to her, and her attempt of making it feel like home was to plant familiar life, such as the green grass and shrubs that were indigenous to the climate she grew up in. Although there is some sarcasm in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s voice, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t sense that he is resentful of her. On the contrary, it seems to me that on some level he understands why she has done such a silly thing as to plant this grass and shrubbery out in the desert and is somewhat sympathetic to her. I know as the tenant, he must be obligated to care for the property, but I get the feeling that it goes a bit deeper than that, so he does performs his duty of caring for her property not only out of obligation, but out of sympathy for her. And he does it to his own chagrin, as he is wasting the precious water on this foliage that he knows will not thrive in this climate.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Novel Ã¢â¬ÅParvanaÃ¢â¬Â Essay
Deborah Ellis novel Parvana explores how human can survive in near to impossible situations and misfortune, however Parvana not only survives but thrives. The novel is set in Afghanistan at the height of the theocracy where her father has lost a leg her brother has been killed by a mine and her mother is undergoing extreme stress. However things take a turn for the worst when they thought nothing else could happen, and her father is taken away by the Taliban so she is forced to dress up as a boy and provide an income for the family. Parvana is chosen to do the work for the family then why didnÃ¢â¬â¢t her mother dress up as a boy instead or her older sister? It is true that she supported her father every day at the market but is it really right to pick a girl that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t even a teenager? Well the answer in quite simple yes the reason being this being her family believes that she is the only family member able to undergo the transformation in gender as well as the mental transf ormation. Once Parvana father is taken away by the Taliban nothing will ever be the same even if he does come back. So Parvana is forced to give up certain aspects of her and her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s lives in order to insure the family survival an example of this is when she dresses up as a boy in order to go outside, this is a major change to Parvana life because she most definitely did not do this previously, however the differences donÃ¢â¬â¢t just stop at family routines if you like and visual differences but also effects the family mentally for example as time goes by Parvana becomes braver and stroner however her mum does not benefit as much and becomes disheartened and depressed.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Nature Strongly Influences Early Human Development. Discuss Essay
Both nature and nurture play an important role in early human development. However, people have always wondered that our gene which we inherited from our parents or environmental factors influenced the most. This has been a mysterious around the globe for centuries. This essay will analyze that nurture is the most important. Nature which is the heredity from our parents plays a huge role in the development. Our personal characteristics were determined by the genetic structure of the fertilized ovum. The decision of our sex, hair color, eyes color comes from the gene which we inherited from our parents. Another example for the affections of gene on the development of human is that, a twin who was separated for almost 35years with different life history still share the same interest and personality when they meet each other. Moreover, because of the genetically programmed maturation , childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior after birth flows the same as the time schedule of their innate ability such as rolling over, sitting without support, standing while holding on to furniture, etc. Although we see that nature influenced human the most, what really influences the development is nurture. For instance, even if all children go through the same sequences of motor behaviors, different children will go through the same stage at different rates. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, the extension of motor behaviors can be hastened by extra stimulation or practice that infants received. As we can see, a child who was given an extra practice of walking everyday began to walk earlier than children who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t practice. Also, the development of speech is accelerated if an infant is encouraged and stimulated to speak. According to the belief of John Locke, babies have blank minds after their births. Their minds only improved from what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned and experienced through their senses. They do not inherit from their parents. Similarly, according to John B. Waston and B. F. Skinner, the nature of human can be adaptable. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really depend on the heredity of the child but it does depend on the training that the child has received. He also stated that he can turn any infants to any kind of specialists such as lawyer, doctor, artist, or even thief and beggar regarding to his training but not their race of ancestors, tendencies, talents or abilities. In conclusion, either nature or nurture influenced new born infants in their own ways. It seems they can back up with strong supports. However, nurture influences more than nature because it has a strong power to alter our natural form and can possibly turn us into somewhat different. In my opinion, I also believe that nurture has a strong impact on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development because from my personal experience, I have to study in order to get the knowledge and skills and my lifestyle just adapt to the environment around me.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Monsters Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Monsters - Essay Example The film assumes that artificial life creatures will be more female oriented than male and that technology will wrap itself around this premise. Keywords: dystopia, sexuality, technology, futuristic, robotic double, strata of society, freedom and equality, maschinenmensch, castration anxiety, love story, apathy, vamp, seven deadly sins, purge, male domination. The author of Metropolis, Thea Gabriele von Harbou (1888Ã Ã¢â¬â1954), was the wife of film director and script writer, Fritz Lang (1890-1976), from 1922 till 1933. Von Harbou took two years to write what she started as a book in 1922, but converted into a screenplay in 1924. It did surface as a book also, in 1926. Forrest J. Ackerman (1916-2008), one of the foremost Science Fiction writers of the past century and the creator of the term Ã¢â¬Ësci-fiÃ¢â¬â¢ (www.mania.com), felt that the book was, by the standards prevailing then, a shade melodramatic, had hints of propaganda, with the themes propounded somewhat naÃ ¯ve. Still, the novel was a remarkably powerful and forward-thinking dystopia with a striking denouement (ibid). Set in 2026 (www.answers.com), the scene is the futuristic sixty million strong megacity of Metropolis (www.moria.co.nz). In a Ã¢â¬Ërich boy meets poor girlÃ¢â¬â¢ story, the boy falls in love with her, to the disappointment of his influential father. The boy begs his father to ameliorate the lot of the downtrodden. The villainous father does the opposite and seeks help from the modern-day Merlin, the mad scientist Rotwang, who creates a robotic double of the girl, devoid of empathy, who incites the oppressed to rebel and decimate the city (ibid), thereby forcing a reconciliation of each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s true worth. The 1924 script was screened in 1927, as the most expensive film ever made then, even though it was a silent film (www.moria.co.nz). Blazena UrgosÃ kovÃ ¡, a well-known film critic of that era,
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Semantic Web + Parallel Distributed data Research Paper
Semantic Web + Parallel Distributed data - Research Paper Example In tally, the Semantic Web is devoted to offering an info distribution model and platform that is suitable for both machine and human to comprehend and collaborate. Cognitive web search engines are one of the introductory structures that permit processor PC systems to spontaneously become intuitive and artificial intelligent over Semantic Web data conferring to some implication rules. Diverse neurodata sources and warehouses commonly use diverse data models and stock heterogeneous data. In the dynamic data federation method this is addressed concurrently to the glitches of data basis heterogeneity and data delivery. It depends on on the central federator, and a set of data suppliers. Given an exceptional inquiry, the federator is accountable for the intelligible sub-querying of the confederated data sources and for uniting all outcomes originated into a universal outcome set. This evades dependability and harmonization or synchronization subjects commonly witnessed in data stores whe re data alteration is done sporadically. Another related research associated to semantic web language includes is the active use of programmes algorithms which focus on the principle of the algorithms comprising of iterating codes over and over each in the design forming a triple pattern in the initial SPARQL query. Subsequently, The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has commended and normalized an amount of codes or values, web languages, and programmable web frameworks and the best performances which permit and allow the communication between the numerous metadata into a more understandable format for the next-generation web, that is, the Semantic Web. As a researcher, the assumption that the programmers have a comprehensive control over the machines in which the data is handled, then one is able to manipulate the queries and offer a commendable output on in iterative and interactive end user interface for examination and conclusion. Ultimately, the distribution and querying of data storage using high data base schemas is an appropriate approach towards implementing essential management of distributed semantic web data. Numerous semantic web requests need the incorporation of records from dispersed, independent databases. Pending to recent techniques it was relatively problematic to access and request for data in such a scenario since there was no customary request semantic or machine interface. The introduction of the SPARQL, and the W3C school endorsement for an RDF query semantic and procedure, this condition has altered. It is now conceivable to brand RDF data obtainable and accessible over a normal PC interface and request for it by means of a customary query semantic. The data does not require to be kept in RDF but can be generated on other interactive databanks. On the other hand, DARQ suggests a sole interface for enquiring on the numerous, dispersed SPARQL end-points and varies inquiry confederacy to the customer. A unique important characteristic of DARQ is that it exclusively depends on the SPARQL custom configuration and consequently is well-matched to several SPARQL endpoints applying this standard. Utilizing facility images delivers an influential way to enthusiastically add and remove endpoints to the inquiry engine in a way that is totally translucent to the end user. To decrease performance costs we present straightforward inquiry optimization for SPARQL inquiries. The web has developed a major automobile in executing research and instruction related
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Cross Cultural Communication & International Management Proposal Essay
Cross Cultural Communication & International Management Proposal - Essay Example Many of these reasons have to do with the goals of the individual. For example, if a person views monetary gain as their main purpose, they may be willing to put ethical issues aside in order to reach their goal with maximum efficiency. They may not pay attention to any code at all, leading to conflict. Existing literature focuses on communication as it is used in leadership and conflict management situations inter-culturally. Ã¢â¬Å"Informal conflicts may occur among coworkers, employees and supervisors, with or within between groups, and among departments within an organization. Such conflicts often occur when there are differences in values, beliefs, or opinions regarding how the work gets completed, how resources or tasks are distributed, or where priorities should beÃ¢â¬ (Montiero, 2003). Further complicating the situation, to put back the international element, what is considered ethically neutral in one country may be totally unethical in another, and vice versa. Ã¢â¬Å"Even if there were widespread cross-cultural agreement on the normative issues of business ethics, corporate ethics management initiatives which are appropriate in one cultural setting still could fail to mesh with the management practices and cultural characteristics of a different settingÃ¢â¬ ¦ multinat ional businesses risk failure in pursuing the ostensible goals of corporate ethics initiativesÃ¢â¬ (Weaver, 2002). In other words, corporate ethics may be something that is culturally relative. In this fashion, international companies are letting their employees know that ethical behavior is expected of them, and are providing their employees with detailed information regarding ethics and international business. In terms of limitations, the proposed research realizes that it is sometimes difficult to discuss some of the more personal facets of international ethical codes, and it is still more difficult not to confuse them with morality, moral philosophy,
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Pressure Ulcer Pain Management Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
Pressure Ulcer Pain Management - Dissertation Example Depending on the nature of the pressure ulcer, common treatments include relieving pressure, restoring circulation, and resolution or management of related disorders. However, prevention still remains as the most potent intervention which significantly reduces the chances of undergoing excruciating long-term therapy (Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins 2009). Effective prevention measures include risk identification, pressure reduction, nutritional assessment, bed rest monitoring, and preservation of skin integrity. In cases of existing pressure ulcers, treatment options include: pressure reduction either by repositioning the patient or by using devices such as beds, mattresses, overlays, and cushions; use of topical ointments; wound cleansing; debridement; and use of dressings to promote wound healing (Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins 2009). The proper assessment of pressure ulcers is crucial in the determining risk of developing pressure ulcers and provision of appropriate interventions. The Braden Scale is used to determine characteristics present in pressure ulcers. This tool evaluates a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition in terms of: (1) sensory perception; (2) moisture; (3) activity, (4) mobility, (5) nutrition, and (6) friction and shear (Prevention Plus LLC 2009). The Pressure Ulcer Staging System is a tool developed by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research to facilitate the assessment of pressure sore characteristics. ... Allen (2011) emphasized the role of pain assessment and treatment as a crucial part of pressure ulcer prevention and management. However, the assessment of patient pain does present some challenges since the sensation of pain is an individual perception. Any indication of pain is considered a valid pain response and patients can experience pain in varying frequency and intensity. In addition, patients may associate pain with movement, infection, or during treatments such as dressing changes and debridement procedures. On the other hand, there may be isolated cases where patients do not report any pain. 1.1. Background of the Study Pain is never ending problem for most patients with pressure ulcers (Caplan 2009; Allen, 2011). Despite advanced improvement in pressure ulcer (PU) care, the condition continues to be a national and international health care problem, resulting in a decreased quality of life, both physically and emotionally, unnecessary suffering, and even death. Research ov er the past decade has largely focused on the assessment and healing of pressure ulcers, for example, the introduction of standardized risk assessment tools, which are used for the prevention, staging and management of PUs. Despite, all of these measures there is still a dearth of research in relation to the prevention and management of pressure ulcer pain. The impetus for this proposed study comes from the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s personal motivation to search and examine recent evidence-based research addressing pressure ulcer pain, including the factors contributing to the pain, the psychological and social impact of continuous pressure ulcer pain, pain at dressing change and
Monday, September 9, 2019
Pediatric Development Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
Pediatric Development - Case Study Example Followed are my observations for the study case. At age of 4, child usually have decreased pulse and respiration rate, average weight of 16.7 kg and height of 103 cm. They trends to become independent, selfish and impatient. They are very aggressive physically and verbally. They take Do and Don'ts significantly and frustrate out on parents and siblings. My child knows own sex, age, and last name. As per information of her caregiver at daycare she can use toilet independently and reliably. She can wash and dry hands unassisted. I tried telling her stories. She listened it but with little distraction. Although she plays with other children, she prefers to play alone. Playing in group needs understanding. She is very good at sharing and understands taking turns with any assistance. She love engaging in dramatic and pretend play, especially dressing up. This shows that: About drawing, E. N. copies circles and crosses without difficulty and matched up to 6 colors while naming them. She counts till 10. She spreads peanut butter with knife really good and carefully. She can unbutton larger buttons easily, but buttoning up takes some time. She drew head with facial features, no years though, but added a body and extremities in a "stick mode". This shows that: After established walking, running, climbing, jumping by age of 2 child start riding cycle, taking broad jump, walking on tiptoe at age of 3. At age of 4 children can skip and hop on one foot adeptly, catch and throw ball faithfully.While trying to walk on a line E. N mostly ended up on one side or another of the line. Yet she can Balance and hop on 1 foot without difficulty. I used yarn of approx. 6 feet high, the child jumped with no problem landing on both feet. She tried to throw and catch the ball to her friend in front of me; she threw with direction, but could not catch when it was thrown back to her. Thus: She is reliable in hoping and balancing on one foot and jumping from height. She needs development in calculating relation between direction and speed so as to catch ball with specific speed and direction. Language Language becomes advanced during preschool years. Speech, vocabulary and comprehension are mostly influence by environment and cognitive ability. Child of age 4 can use sentence of four or five words. They have vocabulary of 1500 words or more. They questions more then ever, can tell exaggerated stories, sing simple songs and poems, tell names of different colors. They even can perceive up to four prepositional phrases such as "under", "on top of", "beside"
Ch 5 - ismg3000 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words
Ch 5 - ismg3000 - Essay Example The effective CIO should be able to steer the organization into designing strategies that match the organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ resources and create their competitive advantage over the rest of their competitors; and leave other responsibilities like focusing on functions, as well as portfolio and infrastructure management to duly competent IT personnel. It is so difficult to assign a quantitative value to the return on an IT investment because, as explained by Ruben, computing for the value should take into consideration varied factors that influence and affect IT within an organization. The rationale for this is that gauging the performance of IT would take evaluating the role that IT plays within a continuum. IT is never static; therefore, computing for a quantitative value captures a pre-defined time frame, which is challenging in itself. This is compounded by the fact that the elements to be incorporated in value computation differ. As disclosed, the investments in IT are already clear demonstrations of value. However, there is also a need to incorporate competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ reaction to a particular investment to determine the rate of return that that particular investment generated in the long run. From the researches provided with the assistance of Maggie, the Ã¢â¬Å"IT DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t MatterÃ¢â¬ contention was actually refuted since all crucial information indicated that ITÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the organization is significant given the distinct value it provides. As supported from the experience of Zara, a clothing retailer, the benefits and values that IT has created in terms of immediately identifying customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands and preferences in clothing styles paved the way for the organization to perfectly match these needs with the current resources. Likewise, the same experience was also disclosed from Wal-Mart in terms if using IT to create their competitive edge over their
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Midterm Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4
Midterm - Essay Example However, comparing the two, there are major differences which make the film more articulate and detailed in detailing the motives, desires and intricacies that led to FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, which the novel does not address critically. The short story begins as Matt thinks about FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral, which creates suspense at the beginning as readers are not introduced to the motive behind FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The suspense at the begging slowly wears out as the story progresses to FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s burial and the planned revenge which makes the audience to learn what really happened to Frank. On the contrary, the film offers a good background of the story and beings as Natalie and Frank run in an open field kissing one another in a romantic scene, which creates a deception that the film would be a romantic one. However, the film still prepares the audience not to expect a romantic scene as the lovers are only seen half way, their faces are not visible, while a strong wind blows through the trees, a case that is not ideal for a love scene. This crates some difference in the plot, which affects the relationship of events. The novel delves directly into death and the revenge as FrankÃ¢â¬â¢s farther ponders about hi s next move, the revenge. However, the film plot first brings about the theme of love and passion, and a plot with complex relationships as the story starts to unfold. These incidences are descriptive of what really happened to Frank, and why he was killed. While in the short story the plot is laid by MattÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and thoughts of a possible revenge (Dubus, 105), the film organizes the plot in a chronological order, which offers the audience enough information regard the murder while the novel does not. The killings are narrated purely from the FowlerÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint, and present his thoughts as pure revenge through exploring his emotions and bitter feelings regarding his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s death, which alters his moral judgment and perception of morality (Dubus,
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Recruitment And Selection Essay Example for Free
Recruitment And Selection Essay 1.1 Introduction: This report is about the principles and practices involved in the process of strategic recruitment and selection at Automax ltd. Automax Ltd is in business of manufacturing auto components for a wide range of products in India, it operates more than 7 units in India The biggest challenge in Automax ltd is to find, attract and retain the talent and big challenge for employees in this organization is to find good people to work with. Human resource is not only the most important resource for any organisation but is a non replicated resource. The main aspiration of Automax Ltd is that it should be the most preferred company to work for, employees should feel belonged to the organisation and all professional goals needs to be fulfilled. The researcher will discuss the principles and practices used by them for strategic approach to strategic recruitment and selection. As we know that HR functional HR strategies deal with the core areas of HRM like recruitment and selection, performance management, pay issues, employee relations. 1.2 Strategic Recruitment: According to [ (Alan Nankervis, 2009) ]Recruitment and selection within an organisation is an integral part of that organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall human resource management and planning process. It is closely related to other human resources management processes like human resource development, performance appraisal, job design, promotions and transfers, reward management. Strategic recruitment usually refers to the identification of the realÃ recruitment needs of the organization and fulfilling those needs. The organizational needs should be tied with the overall business needs. In strategic recruitment approach, business strategy should be linked to the recruitment strategy 1.3 Principles of Strategic recruitment : These principles are just the guidelines which helps in designing and implementing effectiverecruitment strategies. 1 .A well defined strategy: There should be a clearly defined and communicated strategy which defines the brand message, target candidates and primary sources.If the strategy is not defined ornot communicated properly it might result in wastage of resources. 2.Pipeline approach : A well defined recruitment strategy should help in building a steady and continuous pipeline of talented applicants. 3.Employment branding : 1. http://www.ere.net/2008/07/07/the-20-principles-of-strategic-recruitin 2. g/ Automax is committed to recruit individuals with appropriate skills, knowledge, expertise and experience and passion to excel in business not only on academic excellence but also on proactive approach they perform effectively. Human dignity, honesty and sincerity are the core values of the company and the recruitment and selection procedures provide mechanism to formulate for assessing and appointing the most effective and able individuals and also ensures that everyone is treated with equality and fairness. Recruitment and selection procedures are designed in such a way that they not only provide the best practise but also comply with legislation.(Sud,2007) It is believed that Ã¢â¬Å"The quality of an organisation can never exceed the quality of the minds that make it up.Ã¢â¬ At Allied autos it is the responsibility of Human Resource Department to ensure that recruitment procedures should be clear and concise. For example at Allied autos ltd. Strategic HR plan is prepared by the top management which includes in detail the requirement of future human resource, number and type of people required. Preparation of training programme plans so that future needs can be met from inside the company. Preparation of long term recruitment and selection plans. Plans for retaining the able and skilled manpower needs to be prepared. Increased flexibility plans should be prepared so that the company can make best use of human resource. The main aim of any recruitment and selection strategy should of sourcing the best candidate. This can be done by http://www.solgm.co.nz/NR/rdonlyres/D096BC3A-31D7-4044-9732-296D410B26F7/50553/PMFs3.pdf 1.4Resourcing Strategy at Allied Autos Ltd. According to ()HRM is about matching human resources to the strategic and operational needs of the business and it ensures full utilization of the resources. It is not only concerned with the keeping and obtaining the right number and quality of people required but is also concerned with the selecting, promoting and efficiently employing those people who fit the culture and strategic requirement of the organization. The rationale behind resourcing strategy is that the strategic capability of an organization is dependant on the resource capability in the form of people. The main aim of resourcing strategy is to ensure that competitive advantage by a firm is achieved by employing more capable people than rivals. 1.5The strategic hrm approach to resourcing HRM places more emphasis than traditional personnel management of finding people. According to Townley (1989) Organizations are concentrating more on the attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of employees. According to Armstrong,Baron(2002,pg160,161)HRM approach to resourcing is of matching resources with organizational needs does not mean maintaining the status quo rather it means radical changes in thinking about the skills and behaviour which is must for the sustainable growth and cultural change in future. The integration of business and resourcing strategy is based on the understanding of the direction in which organization is going and determination of The number of people required to meet business needs The skills and behaviour required to support this alignment. The impact of restructuring the organization. 1.6Fair Approach to recruitment and selection : There should be no discrimination, there should be incorporation of mutual respect into the recruitment and selection.Should be ethical and equal like power should be used in appropriate manner, use of skilful interview techniques, confidentiality should be maintained. 1.7Sub- sytems of recruitment and selection (Pilbeam Corbridge,2006) 1. Attraction : Suitable candidates should be attracted. 2. Reduction : Anyone unsuitable must be eliminated 3. Selection : proper, assessment, choosing and appointing. 4. Transition: conversion of successful candidate into an effective employee. It should be noted that the involvement of line managers is of crucial importance, it is true that the best laid plans will fails if line managers are not convinced that it is important for the company. 1.8 At allied auto different phases of recruitment 1. Applications are generated by persuading the people to apply. 2. After the applications are received suitable candidates are encouraged to stay until the completion of selection process. 3. Offering of job to suitable candidate sometimes it happens that the same candidate is selected by the 2 different companies than HR department takes every possible step to encourage that candidate to join them. 1.9 Approaches to recruitment and selection: Competency Approach: Torrington et al(2008,pg170). it is concerned with the behaviour that is relevant rather than the competent performance. These models are popular in graduate recruitment where decisions are made about future recruitments. This kind of approach is suitable in service organizations like banks. A Contingency approach: According to [ (french, 2010) ]the underlying principle that organizational policies and practices need to be shaped within a particular context. For example different culture emphasise different attributes when approaching the recruitment and selection of the employees. It is true to a great extent for example if the company is operating across many countries than it needs to recruit the people according to the culture of that place specially the low level staff like KFC is operating across many countries and is recruiting theÃ operational staff from that culture as it helps them to understand its customers better and make profits but say if for UK branch it recruits outside the culture that its recruitment costs will increase. Traditional Approach: It means getting the right people, it involves a sequence of steps like defining the ideal candidate. Defining the criteria in such a way that there is fit between the job and person like Job description and person specification. This approach was criticised on the grounds that it assumes that there is only one best way to perform a job, resulted in unfair discrimination, one way job. 1.10 Strategic recruitment and selection : It sees human resource as an investment for future, use of sophisticated methods of selection, involvement of stakeholders. On the other hand it is an improvement over the traditional method in a way that it aims at development of people, more reliable, switching from company needs to current market demands. 1.11 Staged approach is the best approach for allied autos as it is into manufacturing of auto components: Recruitment and selection advocates viewing the process as sequential with distinct and inter-linked stages. The model is referred to as the resourcing cycle and it begins with the identification of a vacancy and ends when the successful candidate is performing the job to an acceptable standard. This in turn is a two way process in which organisations evaluate the candidate and the candidate in turn observes the organisation as a prospective employer. This process helps to ensure that not only the best candidate is attracted to apply and accepts the post but also the unsuccessful candidate respects the decision and apply for future vacancies. The first and most important questions to be answered before recruitment are :- 1.Determining a vacancy ? If yes does it needs to be filled in by a newly recruited employee ? It is to be noted that there is not only one way of filling the g ap but there are different way in which the gap can be filled . Recruiting a new employee must be with the dealt in careful manner during recession. For example at allied auto when a new vacancy occurs HR department normally does not recruits new employee immediately, as first step the concerned department where the vacancy occurred try some of the options like reorganise the work, use of overtime, use of an agency. 2. Attracting Candidates: [ (Armstrong, 2009) ]The mostÃ important step in attracting candidates is to analyse the recruitment strength and weaknesses of the organization. For example previously when allied auto was choosing among the wide selection of candidates is becoming a thing of past. As we know employees are developing their marketability and knowledge-based skills, allied auto is competing to find the best candidate as its image seems to be less attractive to candidates. Allied autos recognised that recruitment process of the company should be made as powerful an incentive to candidates to join as generous pay and condition. For example Former director of human resource system and personnel relations at CGU, David Hope believes that the interview process should be put together with a firm of business psychologists, it will help graduates to understand the brand, culture and companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to graduate recruitment. Allied autos soon realised that if the recruitment and selection process is well designed it can definitely be an indicator of the future performance and will attract the good candidates, if the candidates can see that there is a positive link between the recruitment process and the job they will be positive about the company. 3.Recruitment Advert: The most widely used method to attract applicants is the recruitment advert. The most effective advert are those that are eye catching and provide sufficient details to attract interest, use of telephone numbers or contact details for informal enquiries will have an important effect on candidates perception of the job and will be encouraging. For example advert of allied autos. 4.Measuring Candidates: CV or application form : it is a document prepared by the individual as a part of the application which includes the details as to education, employment history and other relevant information. In any advert details related to how to apply should be included like whether to send the CV or to fill in a standard application form. Processing application: After the advert the next step is handling applications and processing them. It should be decide in advance internally in the organization as to how these applications needs to be handled. At allied autos standard acknowledgment is sent to all the applicants and then applications are compared and sorted with the key criteria in personsÃ specification in 3 categories suitable, provisional and unsuitable. Standard letter is sent to the shortlisted candidates for interview and if any of them have not filled in the application form before. 5.Selection: One of the last stage in recruitment and selection is the selection itself. It includes the choice of methods by which a short-listed group is reduced by the employer following the recruitment stage and thus it leads to an employment decision. [ (french, 2010) ].In allied autos relative merits of the shortlisted candidates are assessed against the job description and person specification which explore their skills , experience and knowledge which establish the most suitable candidate for the job. After that the interviews arranged with the respective department and is ensured that they are structured, well prepared and focused. Not more than 5 candidates are interviewed and all the interviews are held the same day. Some jobs involves practical tests and presentations, at allied autos practical tests are taken on the day of the interview and this is informed to the candidates in advance. References are taken for all shortlisted candidates prior to the interviews and are taken in writing and then these references are passed on to HR department for the successful candidates. The successful candidates are given the appointment letter and this is forwarded to the HR department as it is the HR department which will issue the formal offer letter. 1.12Talent Management and Development Techniques: According to (Banfield and Kay,2008) The successful attracting and recruiting of new talent means that the needs of both the organisation and individual tend to match. Ultimate aim of the organisation should be to develop and maintain this pool of talented people by making use of different elements like attraction and retention programmes, roles design, talent management relationship, performance management, career management. At allied autos it is believed that the key to success is sustained focus on technology, systems and human resource. Training needs are identified periodically and all new recruits are trained in technical training centre on pressing machines and other technical fields. Competencies can be used to develop self assessment and encouragesÃ feedback for enhancing improvement and aligning employee goals with business objectives. The need for employees at all levels to be involved in ongoing development of new skills, exposure to new experiences and learning to learn is apparent. Strategic Human Resource Management Page 226 Google Books Result books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=0415099897 Olive Lundy, Alan G. Cowling 1996 Business Economics THE SELECTION PROCESS The ultimate effectiveness of strategically selecting Selection principles Human resource selection is a process of measurement, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2Kg9AAAAIAAJpg=PA226lpg=PA226dq=principles+of++strategic+selection+in+hrmsource=blots=zWSI2-Xzi7sig=7L-Zd675CI2AYhMYaYIMFL65PVEhl=ensa=Xei=UyngULa_MO3L0AXMyIG4Dgved=0CFcQ6AEwBQ#v=onepageq=principles%20of%20%20strategic%20selection%20in%20hrmf=false 2.1 Strategic Performance Mangement: Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic performance management encompasses methodologies, frameworks and indicators that help organizations in the formulation of their strategy and enable employees to gain strategic insights which allow them to challenge strategic assumptions, refine strategic thinking and inform strategic decision making and learning.Ã¢â¬ -Bernard Marr Different tools used for strategic performance management are 1. Mangement by objectives 2. Balanced scorecard 3. Hoshni Kanri 4. Value based management 5. Result oriented management 6. Performance prism Principles of strategic performance management 1.Be honest and open 2. make goals interesting, challenging and engaging 3.build on strengths more than correcting weaknesses Performance management is a broader term, it includes Performance management systems Monitoring and evaluation Performance management in context Measuring performance 2.2Models of Performance Management 1. Balanced Score card : Balanced scored card is a tool used for strategic performance management. This model was developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s.This is used as a tool by the managers to keep track of and to monitor to the activities of the staff within their control. The main advantage of this method is that it is a mixture of both the financial and non financial measures compared to a target within a single concise report. It alerts the areas to the manager where performance deviates from expectations. To many organisations it is positioned as a holistic performance measure as it provides information relating to financial, internal processes, customer perceptions and internal growth and learning. Now increasingly it has been associated with strategy implementation. 2. The EFQM Business Excellence Model: This model was developed by European foundation for quality management for long term sustainability of the strategic objectives. According to EFQM(1999) it is defined as the outstanding practice in managing and achieving results. This model helps the organizations to maintain a balance between the stakeholders and incorporates financial and also an indicator of the future financial performance. It helps the business in identifying the threats and opportunities for improvement against strategic goals, this is used as a basis of self assessment. The main drawback of this modelis it is not standard model and it does not tell how to fill the gaps although it provides a valuable feedback. 2.3Performance management systems : According to (Bevan and Thompson,1992) PMS should communicate the objectives of the organisation to all employees. Departmental and individual performance targets should be related to the organisation objective. Identification of training and development and reward outcomes. Evaluation of theÃ effectiveness of the process as a whole. 2.4Objectives of performance management at Allied autos 1. Improvement of organizational and individual performance 2. Alignment of individual and organisational objectives 3. performance pay decisions 4. helps in personal development of employees. Reducing poor performance and increasing organizational performance are the main priorities of performance and development function at allied autos. For considering the management of performance issues in the organization it is possible to identify two different reference frames which are associated with the use of term performance management. According to Taylor(2005) these are known as two perspectives on Performance management. Standard Oriented: It is measured at the individual level, focus on improving poor performance, concerned with slippage below expected expectations, Use of formal appraisal systems , incentive based payments and disciplinary procedures ,transactional leadership. Excellence Oriented: It is measured at the organizational level, focuses on enhancing strong performance, concerned with continuous improvement, Use of enhancing job satisfaction, coaching techniques, transformational leadership. In allied autos both perspectives co-exist, it is very difficult to manage both of them together but it is fact that individual performance will lead to organizational performance as it is the individuals who make up the organization. HR department sets the rules and these were written in the policy for example(lateness, absence etc) and these are acceptable by all. Individual performances are measured by the department head or immediate supervisor and if there are deviations then standards are set for those particular workers to improve their performance. On the other hand if we look at excellence oriented approach although it sounds good but if we see the practical aspect of it, does not clearly indicate as to what is the satisfactory level of performance and its main focus is on continuous improvement, it mainly motivates, maximises level of commitment and job satisfaction among the staff. For example at Allied autos this is always the problem, in the manufacturing plant, the performance of production people is always measured on the basis of quantity produced by them and it ignores the quality. If weÃ look at it practically this kind of data is not correct as it will not provide the accurate results when evaluating the performance. 2.5 Behaviour-Oriented Approach: It has been argued that outcome approach does not provide the proper assessment of individual performance. So, it is argued that behaviour needs to be assessed as much as behaviour. There was an argument that not only the achievements are important but the processes by which they are achieved are also important. It only focuses on what individuals do and remove other environmental factors and the other inputs. Employee behaviour is less readily measured then the criteria used in other approaches. The main methods used are direct observation, the report of others watching them for example peers. Approached used rating scale, critical incidents and reactive approaches. 2.6 Principles of measurement at allied autos. Performance is measured according to the needs of customer, both internal and external, what is considered important by the customer is measured. Strategic plan is prepared which indicates what is to be measured and translating of customer needs to strategic priorities. All the departments are supplied with measured results of the key strategic areas for further improvement by motivating them. 2.7 Classification of measures Performance Appraisal According to Jeanne Murphy, Growth strategists and president of strategic solutions. Ã¢â¬Å" If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t measure a goal, then donÃ¢â¬â¢t set the goal,Ã¢â¬ performance should be measured on objective basis. According to Kane(1996),Taylor(2005),measures are classified as 1. Productivity measures: At allied autos sometimes for the casual workers who are actually working in the plant( manufacturing unit)producing spare parts their performance is measured according to the units produced by them, the more the numbers produced the better is the performance. The main drawback with this measure of performance is that it ignores the quality of the output as sometimes there may be some rejections at the customer end or when it goes for quality check. 2. Quality Measures : This involves assessing the individual on the basis of quality of service delivered by him. For example at allied autos in order to measure the performance of staff who is working in the head office or customer care department. The performance is measuredÃ on the basis of customer satisfaction, absenteeism, poor quality work and motivation. It can be internal customer like different departments or external customer to whom the final goods or services are supplied, this kind of performance measurement many a times fails to give accurate results specially when it is converted into quantifiable terms. This assessment method is mostly used in service industry like hospitals, banks etc. 3. Objectives set and Met: This involves assessing the individuals or teams on the basis of objectives set by the top management or the immediate manager or supervisor. As the name indicates performance is measured on the basis of how far the objectives met the criteria defined, are they below satisfaction or objectives or above the satisfaction. To some extent this method is reliable but if say some have some personal bias with the sub ordinate than the boss or the supervisor will not give accurate results. 2.8 Criteria for performance measures-appraisals At allied autos performance measures are set in accordance with the strategic goals: like for example different targets are set for each department and division. Main focus is on both quality and quantity of outputs that can be measured and accomplished. Performance measures at allied autos are based on evidences. Measures that can be verified are taken into consideration. Performance measures at allied are set in such a manner that they help in providing sound feedback and action. Performance measures are comprehensive in respect that they cover almost every area. In order to be achievable measurable targets must be set by expressing the individual requirements. for example : For output : According to (Bratton and Gold,2003)Targets should be clearly defined and should be measurable. Proper defining of the objectives so that an individual should know what is expected, it is the responsibility of the organization to ensure that everyone must understand what is required of them. It is said that objectives should be SMART S-Specific; M-Measurable ; A-Agreed; R-Realistic ; T-Timely Job Related: Job descriptions should be in writing indicating the broad roles and responsibilities. Competencies of the individual or team should be defined in advance. If there are any descrepencies which are normally expected as a result of human nature, it should be the responsibility of the top management to take necessary steps to remove them and use certain strategies to improve performance. 2.8 Strategies used at allied autos for improving performance. 1. Negotiation: At allied autos if it is observed that the performance of any worker is not upto the standard then he is called in by the immediate line manager or supervisor for the discussion to know the reason of detoriation in the performance level sometimes there is some personal problem which results in falling down of performance. 2. Grievance procedure: At allied autos there is proper grievance procedure handling system, grievance booklet is kept in the plant for recording grievances on daily basis. At the end of the day this register is checked by the HR manager and corrective actions are taken. 3. Reward: To motivate the employees and to improve production different reward schemes are in function at allied autos like suggestion reward, attendance reward, long term service reward etc. 4. Improvement in the working environment: Allied auto is taking all the necessary steps to improve the working environment for the workers like previously there was no cooling system in the plant and due to extreme hot weather workers were not able to give their 100% and they started feeling tired quickly, now a new cooling system has been installed in plant with which not only workers are happy but the output has also increased, canteen was renovated, water filtering system was installed keeping in my mind the health and safety of staff. All this have resulted in improved efficiency and low turnover rates. 2.9 Pay Performance Issues The most important factor to be considered in order to improve performance is the Pay issues. Pay should be linked to performance not to time as it is unrealistic and does not motivate the workers. Pay structures should be designed in such a way that they bring in flexibility and multi skilling. Pay should be market driven there should not be any biases. It should be noted that if pay is performance based then it will definitelyÃ help in improving performance. Should be based on performance appraisals and these appraisals should be fair. Some companies now a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s use 360 degree appraisal: which means feedback is obtained from everyone like peers, superiors, subordinates and then the performance is measured. There should be transparency in pay differentials, there should be equal pay for equal work. According to (CIPD,2012)Performance management is a holistic process as it bring together many of the elements that make up the successful practice of managing people including learning and development. 3.10 Conclusion : It is to be concluded that allied autos has started realising that their employees are their strength and every possible action has been taken and strategies developed not only to recruit the best talent but also to retain them by making use of different development techniques like performance management, career development, performance measure. It is of great importance that strategic principles and practices used in recruitment and selection will have an effect on performance management so recruitment and selection should be done in a sophisticated manner and must be aligned with the business strategy. 3.1References : Armstrong,M.(2009),ArmstrongÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook of Human Resource Management.11th ed. London and Philadelphia: Kogan Page Ltd. Armtrong,M. and Baron,A.(2002),Strategic HRM. London: CIPD Banfield, P.and Kay,R.(2008),Introduction to Human Resource Management.1st ed.New York: Oxford Printing Press Bratton,J. and Gold,J.(2003),Human Resource Management Theory and Practice.3rd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Google,books.(2012),People Resourcing. Taylor,S. Available from http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=6f-Yk35qMqcCpg=PA268lpg=PA268dq=perspectives+of+performance+management+by+taylorsource=blots=Elonir4KyPsig=5Ia4pJD8eyY8kEDyxI6692PjM-4hl=ensa=Xei=0VicT5T0K4Ke0QXArf2DDwved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepageq=perspectives%20of%20performance%20management%20by%20taylorf=false[Electronically accessed 28th April 2012] Rees,G.and French,R.(2010),Leading,Managing and Developing
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