Friday, May 31, 2019
Charles Herreshoff :: Biography Biographical Essays
Charles Herreshoff After Agnes Muller died in the cold Prussian winter of 1766, her three-year-old son was alone in the world. It was said later, though there was no proof, that Agness husband visible Eschoff went mad with grief surely only that could confound explained his subsequent abandonment both of his post as bodyguard to Frederick the Great and of his only child. In any case, he disappeared forever, leaving his former townsfolk with only the vague notion that he had gone to Italy.The sons childhood has been lost to the past. An account written two centuries later by a descendant suggests that he faild with maiden aunts until the age of eight, when the women sent him to live with a professor in Potsdam. This, the account explains, is how the boy finally met Frederick the Great the monarch consulted with the boys professor. Another, more sordid tale mentions the rumors that Frederick himself had fathered the child. Frederick, the story goes, was tout ensemble impotent and thus flattered by the suggestion. And so, this version continues, partly out of pride and partly as a joking revenge for the desertion of his bodyguard Corporal Eschoff, the emperor took the boy under his wing and sent him to a school for the children of nobles, equipped with the names of two kings and a surname that meant lord of the manor Karl Friederich Herreschoff.What is real is that Karl Friederich left his native Prussia for the United States around 1786. This voyage across the Atlantic marked the beginning of a metamorphosis that of Karl Friederich Herreschoff, uncertain but cultured novel immigrant, into Charles Frederick Herreshoff, promising young merchant.Charles struggled for a decade in his adopted country, first starting his own firm and going bankrupt eventually, he went to work for a mercantile firm where wealthy and successful John Brown was a senior partner. The young mans pleasant demeanor and charm, as healthy as his talent for good conversation and elega nt music, are mentioned in more than one account. He had no good family name and no bullion other than what the firm paid him but he had personality, and he hoped that would be enough to catch the eye of Browns much-beloved younger daughter, Sarah.By 1798, Charles appears to have already made some kind of declaration to the young woman he affectionately called Sally.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Stephen William Hawking :: essays research papers
Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January in Oxford, England. His parents house was in north London, but during the second gentleman war Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School, and then on to University College, Oxford, his fathers old college. Stephen wanted to do maths, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he did Physics instead. After ternary years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science. Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no-one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a profial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of uranology in 1973 Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and since 1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend hydrogen Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton.Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einsteins General Theory of relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the hulking Bang and an end in dreary holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General relativity theory with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the twentieth Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation and at long last evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or marches in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determine by the laws of science.His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and three hundred Years of Gravity, with W Israel.Stephen William Hawking essays research papers Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January in Oxford, England. His parents house was in north London, but during the second world war Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School, and then on to University College, Oxford, his fathers old college. Stephen wanted to do Mathematics, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he did Physics instead. After three years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science. Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no-one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and since 1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton.Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showe d that Einsteins General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Myths, Dreams and the Epic of Gilgamesh :: Epic of Gilgamesh Essays
The Epic of Gilgamesh, a masterpiece of world literature, is considered to be one of the oldest epics in the world. It is called an epic, but it is really a myth. In order to be able to understand a myth, it is necessary to have an historical point of view from two perspectives, so to speak, an out and an inner one. The outer one concerns the necessity to understand the historical form in which the archetypes appear, the historical background to which the myth is related - in our case, the Babylonian culture and religion. The inner face concerns the demand problems of the time, with which that token epoch struggled consciously, or in which it was unconsciously involved. Although this is primarily a scientific task, I believe that it is nevertheless a matter of nimble necessity for us to understand such documents humains in relation to our own life, for all the ages live in us, and we cannot really understand ourselves unless we know our spiritual roots. What particular age and what spiritual contents are evoked in us by the unconscious is, to a certain extent, a question of individual fate. Since western culture is based to a great extent on Judaism and Christianity, Babylonian culture as one of their roots may be looked upon as of contiguous psychological interest to us all. The archetypes live in their realm, beyond time and space. This builds the bridge of understanding between men of all ages, and makes it possible to realize that we ourselves with our essential problems are bound up in the continuity of the constant problems of mankind, as they are mirrored in myths. But the form in which the archetypes appear, their garments so to speak, depends on the historical conditions the symbols in which they appear change. In the human being these changes correspond to the development of human consciousness. Thus the myths, in my opinion, represent not only eternal archetypal events, but a certain level of the development of human consciousness. During my work on this remarkably rich material this connection thrust itself more(prenominal) and more into my mind, so that I should like to define it as the basic idea, as the starting point of my attempt to explain this myth. It was only in 1872 that scholars low became aware of this myth, when the English Assyriologist George Smith made public The Chaldean Account of the Deluge, as he titled his translation of the eleventh tablet of the epic.
Using Nazi Tactics Against Smokers Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive A
Using Nazi Tactics Against SmokersPrior to the 1930s, Germany was Europes most hospitable country for Jews. While Jews were only maven percent of the population, they were one-fourth of Germanys law and medical students. In some German cities, Jews were the majority of doctors. While Jews were only five percent of the Berlin population in 1905, they gainful 31 percent of all income taxes collected. For Germany as a whole, Jewish income was more than three times the national average. In his book, Migration and Cultures, Dr. Thomas Sowell adds that Jews were so highly combine into German economic and social life that in nearly half of all Jewish marriages during the 1920s one of the spouses was Gentile. During World War I, Jewish-American publications were investigated and prosecuted by the U.S. authorities for writing favorably about Germany, a nation at war with the U.S. Much of German history has been one of racial toleration. This is partially seen by their anti-slavery positio ns in Brazil and the United States. In the United States, Germans had a large hand in assisting runaway slaves by way of the underground railroad. Germans also had an established reputation of getting along very well with American Indians.So why the story about pre-Nazi Germany? I think examining it raises an interesting question that few get to answer namely, if Germany was so hospitable to Jews, relative to other countries, how in the world did the Holocaust happen? There are several alternative explanations such as Hitlers massive consolidation of government power. Then theres the fact that German culture places high values on regimentation and obedience to authority. An important part of the answer of how Germans came to deport Jew... ... no more. The nations tyrants have now turned their attention to the vilification of spendthrift food chains such as McDonalds, Burger King, Wendys and Kentucky Fried Chicken, charging them with having created an addiction to fatty foods. T hus, the tyrants claim, card-playing food chains have contributed to obesity-related problems and growing healthcare costs. Like the anti-tobacco zealots they call for regulation, compensation for injury and taxes on foods they deem to be non-nutritious. In addition to fast food chains, these tyrants have targeted soft drink and candy manufacturers. Chinese and Mexican restaurants are also in their sights because they have meal servings deemed to be too large. In their campaign against fast food chains, restaurants and soda and candy manufacturers the nations food Nazis always refer to the anti-tobacco campaign as the model for their agenda.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Between The Forest And Greed :: essays research papers
Between The lumber and GreedWithin the past decade thither has been a rising "environmentally conscious" accomplishment. The spectrum of issues in contention by environmentalism has expandedvirulently and is reaching its zenith. Public dissatisfaction with theenvironmental movement is forming, as the movement has taken the fight for theenvironment too far. Donella Meadows is an environmentalist who has yet tofully think about the issue she is arguing. In her piece "Not Seeing the Forestfor the Dollar Bills," she takes an almost infantile approach to the enterindustry and the concept of clear cutting. The monetary motivations behind thelogging industry is her explanation for clear cutting, onerous to portray thelogging industry as a cold money making machine. This of course neglects thefact that the reason logging generates capital is because the world demand wood.There are several economic and environmental issues that are considered whenloggers enter and area. H aphazard clear cutting of forests, while it maybe whatMeadows would like us to think, does non happen. With every industry, everyaspect is carefully debated and analyzed for the short and long term outcomes.     Any industry that capitalizes on earths resources figuratively signs a pledge with the earth. This pact bonds this industry to the earth and requiresthat any harvesting of resources is not done so with haste and waste. There isa symbiotic relationship between the two. For the industry to be there mustbe a constant supply of the resource. Without a constant supply the industrydies. Now, many people believe that the logging industrys documentary is to cutdown all the trees that are currently standing. As horrific as this scenariomay sound, it is far from the truth. Without trees to cut down there is noindustry. The logging industry is not so foolish as to rampage the forests andcut down all the trees. As they cut, they plant. Replacing forests withsampli ngs may look inadequate, but oer a long period of time these samplings bequeath become a new forest. The earth as we know it today has been in existencefor millions of years. flat if newly planted tress take a century to grow backthat is only a pinpoint on the time line. The millions of acres of forestedland left untouched currently will not be engulfed by blades and tractorsinstantly. It will take time to cut down the trees, as it will take time togrow them back.     Meadows seems to have a misconception of industries and the service theyprovide. All industries, whether it be recycling to logging, are trying to
Between The Forest And Greed :: essays research papers
Between The Forest and GreedWithin the past decade there has been a rising "environmentally assured"movement. The spectrum of issues in contention by environmentalism has expandedvirulently and is reaching its zenith. Public dissatisfaction with theenvironmental movement is forming, as the movement has emergencen the fight for theenvironment withal far. Donella Meadows is an environmentalist who has yet tofully think about the issue she is arguing. In her piece "Not Seeing the Forestfor the Dollar Bills," she takes an almost infantile overture to the loggingindustry and the concept of clear cutting. The monetary motivations behind thelogging industry is her explanation for clear cutting, trying to portray thelogging industry as a cold money making machine. This of course neglects thefact that the reason logging generates capital is because the world needs wood.There are several economic and environmental issues that are considered whenloggers enter and area. Ha phazard clear cutting of forests, while it maybe whatMeadows would like us to think, does not happen. With every industry, everyaspect is guardedly debated and analyzed for the short and long term outcomes.     Any industry that capitalizes on earths resources figuratively signs apact with the earth. This pact bonds this industry to the earth and requiresthat any harvest-home of resources is not done so with haste and waste. There isa symbiotic relationship between the two. For the industry to exist there mustbe a constant supply of the resource. Without a constant supply the industrydies. Now, many people believe that the logging industrys objective is to cutdown all the trees that are shortly standing. As horrific as this scenariomay sound, it is far from the truth. Without trees to cut down there is noindustry. The logging industry is not so unadvisable as to rampage the forests andcut down all the trees. As they cut, they plant. Replacing forests withsampl ings may look inadequate, but over a long period of succession these samplingswill become a new forest. The earth as we know it today has been in existencefor millions of years. Even if newly planted tress take a century to grow backthat is only a pinpoint on the time line. The millions of acres of forestedland left untouched currently will not be engulfed by blades and tractorsinstantly. It will take time to cut down the trees, as it will take time togrow them back.     Meadows seems to train a misconception of industries and the service theyprovide. All industries, whether it be recycling to logging, are trying to
Monday, May 27, 2019
Corrections and Treatment Essay
connection based treatment plays a large role in the criminal justice system. Community based treatment includes probation, treatment services and restitution. There is community based housing like small group homes, foster homes and boarding schools where jejunes can make pass time while they are undergoing treatment. There are also nonresidential political programs, where the juvenile can remain in their family home while attending treatment. A juvenile that is ordered to a foster home could be placed there because they do not have proper supervision in their family home, or they do not have a family home. A foster home is a place where the juvenile has the ability to live in a beneficial environment, in a place that they can call home. Restitution is often used as a community treatment when an offender has caused damage to property, this is the courts office of making the juvenile pay for the damages they caused.This could also be repaired by completing community service, if the damage was done to a public area where the juvenile can repair the damage with supervision. Institutionalization started by the juvenile offenders spending their sentence in the adult prison facilities, since there were no juvenile facilities. The adult facilities provided insensate conditions for juveniles, where they were exposed to the evils of adult offenders and conditions that were not made for juveniles (Larry J. Siegel, 2005). The first juvenile institutions were created like the adult facilities, but they were created to defend the juveniles from the evils in the adult prisons. The juvenile facilities were also created to protect children. As juvenile institutions evolved, reform schools were made they resembled boarding schools, providing education as well as confinement. Early institutions focused on punishment, which did not better the juveniles erst they were released from the facilities. Later facilities changed the focus from punishment to rehabilitation.One g reat step towardsrehabilitation was the creation of a cottage system for an institute. In a cottage system, some(prenominal) juveniles shared a cottage with a set of parents that watched over them. Aftercare programs are similar to parole for adults. In an aftercare program, the juvenile is provided with a vicissitudeal program to transition the juvenile from a juvenile institute back to the community. Just like parolees in the adult system, juveniles have to abide by terms of The Intensive Aftercare program. almost of the terms are abiding by curfew, attend school, abstain from drugs and alcohol, avoid committing crimes and reporting to a youth worker when required (Larry J. Siegel, 2005). If the terms of the Intensive Aftercare program are not followed this can result in the juvenile returning to the institution.BibliographyLarry J. Siegel, B. C. (2005). Juvenile Delinquency The Core. Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Acids be very(prenominal) caustic substances that can break beat materials easily. The gamey ge ber window glassity obtained by a substance, the faster it is able to decompose a nonher material. In fiat to determine the acidity of certain substances, a pH scale is used. On this scale, numbers unrivaled to fourteen are placed. Fourteen would represent an increased amount of alkalinity rather than acidity.Seven is a neutral z sensation, and one would be an increased amount of acidity rather than alkalinity (USGS, 2016). Figure 1 shows how the scale works and a select few substances that obtain different pH values. These values range from 14 to 1. The greater acidity of a substance, the more pernicious it is. The firster acidity of a substance, the less corrosive it becomes. In order to determine the perniciousness of a material, a pH scale is used. Testing strips help determine this.A pH testing strip is a member of paper that is used to measure the molar concentration of hy drogen ions to determine the acidity or basicity of a substance (GSU, 2000). The use of pH testing strips write out plentiful information when trying to obtain the pH of a substance.Figure 1 Standard pH Scale (BIOL 1406)Soft DrinksStudies take a crap provided information that many of commercially change low-key suck ups in the United States are utmost(a)ly corrosive with a pH of 4.0 or lower.The average wastefulness of tooth structure begins at 4.0 (Zhejiang University, 2009). Thus stated, these diffuse drinks maintain a detrimentally high erosive potential and are able to cause diarrhoea. The soft drink Pepsi has a pH of 2.37. Orange take apart importanttains a pH of 2.87. Dr. Pepper reveals a pH of 2.88. Country Time Lemonade shows a pH of 2.57, and coca plant poop contains a pH of 2.39 (Reddy, et. Al., 2015).Pepsi has the lowest pH of these select soft drinks, so it has the highest acidulous level, whereas Dr. Pepper has the highest pH. Concluding this, Pepsi is th e most corrosive substance, and Dr. Pepper is the to the lowest degree corrosive. Since the dissolution of atomic number 20 begins at 4.0, every soft drink used in this poll is of great detrimental damage. The erosive potential of each drink has a great effect on structures such as enamel. The fastest dissolution would begin with Pepsi, coca Cola next, then Country Time lemonade.After lemonade, Orange Crush, and finally Dr.Pepper.Calcium And DissolutionCalcium is a mineral that supplies the main structure and hardness for trick outs and odontiasis. (Goldblatt, et. Al, 2016). It is also the backbone of nut case welts, for the protective coating around the egg is made of calcium carbonate. The calcium differences between tooth enamel and egg scolds are very closely related. They are not the akin, but in comparison, their properties correspond very well.Enamel consist of minerals that help protect the tooth. This is the selfsame(prenominal) for pelthells. Eggshells are a pro tective coating for the egg. Yet, while tooth enamel contains calcium phosphate, eggshells contain calcium carbonate (University of Illinois, 2016). Eggs appear to be the beaver direct comparison to find closely related results. If a soft drink can decompose an eggshell in a certain amount of time, it should likewise be the same for enamel, moreover a bit more complicated because of the excess mineral makeup that makes teeth a stronger substance.The calcium carbonate and the soda are the lawful reactions. Its not so much the egg as a whole, or the soda as a whole, it is how they act amongst each other when combined. The acidic drink is eligible to break down calcium levels because of the reaction between the substances. Enamel begins to increasingly dissolute inversely to the increase of pH. As the pH lessens, the more dissolution is caused ( Larsen, 1999). Soda contains many different levels of sugary and acidic values that cause a much faster dissolution, and cause erosion.Usin g a demonstration of teeth submerged in an acidic liquid for a week is close to a life time span of drinking soda end-to-end some(prenominal) years. This is understandable because the structure is submerged inside the liquid at all times, not just frequent periods (Swains, 2007). How Dissolution in Enamel Works Because of the high phosphoric acid content in carbonated drinks, they are seemingly low on the pH Scale. Low pH levels are extremely acidic and remineralize particles in tooth enamel.Dissolution causes dental problems over time. Some of these painful diseases are caused by soft drinks. Some common issues seen amongst people that have a nutrition containing soda everyday are more susceptible to caries, osteoporosis, attrition, and abstraction(American Dental Association, 2000).The phosphoric acid and sugar compounds create a massive build up a suck inst bone structure. Although enamel is strong and sturdy, dissolution begins at surroundings of a 4.0 pH, so it doesnt hold u p forever. Carbonated drinks are express to be just as bad as non diluted vinegar, but because of all of the sugars and artificial flavoring, the drinks do not seem as bad. In fact, some carbonated drinks are of a lower pH than vinegar on the pH scale( Austin Community College).The initial purpose of this experiment was to enhance the knowledge of what drinks can decompose calcium the fastest due to specific levels of acidity.Discussion True dissolution did not seem to begin until after the first week. In comparison to a life span, one week is a reasonable amount of time before decay because 1 week is a regular sitting of soda over a 3 year time span. It is known that dissolution does not begin right away, more so it is the long term effects after something has been through repeatedly. (Swains, 2007)The eggshells had absorbed the distorts of the drinks. This was very intricate because the soft drink seemed to appear disoluted, whereas the egg had pertained the saturation of color. In comparison, teeth absorb the color of drinks and stain after a while. Of course this is not shown right away, but as stated previously, the time frame in which the eggs soak is an approximation of almost xiii years of drinking that drink regularly.This is a valid point as to why the egg had such a large discoloration it was because it absorbed the color it was surrounded by (W3C, 2006). The acidic drinks used had a detrimental change on the eggshells. The mass of the eggs decreased sufficiently and distinctively. When touching the shell, it was fragile, and the drinks were so corrosive that the shell itself was stripping into thin sediment. Pieces of the shell were flaking off. Soft drinks have such a high phosphoric acid content which virtuosos to extreme reductions of calcium.Reductions of calcium lead to weak and fragile structures. Pepsi Eggs that had been submerged in Pepsi were sticky and had a brown overtone to them. These eggs had gone through the most dissolution thro ughout the 4 week timespan. This makes sense when understanding that the most acidic substance used was Pepsi. Pepsi has a very low pH balance which causes such an extreme amount of dissolution. The more acidic a substance is, the more corrosive and efficient it is when eroding.With a pH of 2.37, it is easy to tell that the substance has a high acidic ranking which is a detrimate factor in erosion. The net hit dissolution caused by the soft drink Pepsi was .847g. Pepsi is a Cola product so the assumption was that it would have taken a toll like Coca Cola did, but it turns out it was a handle harsher on the eggs than Coca Cola was. Frankly, It was approximately double the damage. The American Dental Association provides information on Cola products and the way they affect bone structure.Cola products are said to be a significant cause of damage to the bones which explains why the eggshell had dissoluted so quickly in Pepsi. But why not the same for Coca Cola too? This is where the phosphoric acid in Pepsi was higher than in Coca Cola. Pepsi had a lower pH, so it was more corrosive afterall ( American Dental Association, 2000).Orange Crush Eggs that were submerged in Orange Crush had many interesting effects to them. The most interesting was that the egg shell had gained the saturation of the drink whereas the drink diluted to almost a complete clear color. Although this toped, it did not have a great amount of dissolution as expected. Orange juice is very acidic, but because there was a use of mainly carbonated sodas, Orange Crush seemed like the next best comparison. on that point was not as much damage as expected after all with only .359g disoluted total. It is still a great amount of dissolution, but not as much as the Cola products and Country Time Lemonade. Orange Crush obtained the second lowest pH of all the substances( American Dental Association, 2000). Although the phosphoric acid was lower than most of the solutions, Dr. Pepper still had the lowe st pH and phosphoric acid level of all.Nonetheless, Orange Crush still contains a low pH, phosphoric acid, and is eligible to be abrasive to structure. The acids present take on considerable influences of demineralizing and causing attrition in structures( Johansson, et Al. 2012). Dr. Pepper Eggs that were submerged in Dr. Pepper were sticky and obtained a similar brown color like the eggs submerged in Pepsi. The solution had made a sort of adhesive protection around the egg much like Pepsi had.By the fourth week each egg was completely brown and the shell was softened reservation it substantially weaker than the first week. Although the shell was weak. Eggs submerged in Dr. Pepper had the least dissolution amongst every soft drink. Considering the pH of Dr. Pepper is the highest, at just 2.88,and it obtains the least acidic makeup this is of validation. Although, Dr. Pepper contains a higher sugar concentration than most drinks.This partakes a great roll in the occurrence of diss olution too. Sugary drinks affect dissolution as much as acid concentration, so there was still a great potential of attrition to occur over the four week time period(Ophardt, 2003). When calculating the average dissolution amongst all of the soft drinks, Dr.Pepper did appear to have the lowest in dissolution. The net total was .243g. This is a smaller number compared to the rest of the soft drinks, yet nonetheless it is still an amount of dissolution.Concluding this, it is still a corrosive substance also. These acid and sugar contents are detrimental to structure(Thompson, 2016).Country Time Lemonade Eggs that were submerged in Country Time Lemonade contained a very gritty texture and the shell was flaking off into small pieces that were brittle and thin. The Country Time Lemonade had also bleached the eggshell.By the fourth week, the eggshells had been brightly shining as a pure white, whereas when the eggs first began they were dull and had very light grey spots in select places . Some pieces of the shells were gone and the inside was preserved like a coating of yolk that was rubbery. Although brittle and frail, the most dissolution was not caused by Country Time Lemonade. The net total dissolution had actually fallen directly in the middle of all soft drinks.The total abrasion of the eggs submerged in Country Time Lemonade amounted .369g. Although a smaller amount than Coca Cola and Pepsi, there was still a substantial amount of dissolution amongst these eggs over all( American Dental Association, 2000). One of the biggest factors that Country Time Lemonade is eligible to exert such a great dissolution is because of the acid in lemons/ lemon juice and the amount of sugar added to this solution.As well as the low pH balance of 2.57. A considerable amount of dissolution occurs under these conditions(Ophardt, 2003). Coca ColaEggs submerged in Coca Cola had the second highest erosive potential amongst this castigate of carbonated drinks. Much like the ending results of Dr. Pepper and Pepsi, Coca Cola also had the same sticky coating around its shell and the discoloration of the egg was brown as well. The solution was gooey just as Dr. Pepper and had a very soft texture to it.The shell was mushy and turned very fragile over each week. By the fourth week, the eggs submerged in Coca Cola were just completely mushy and didnt have stableness to them at all, whatsoever. Cola products are severely detrimental to structures. They cause a critical dissolution amongst structures, in this case eggs. Coca Cola is said to be significant in causing bone damage. Coca Cola and Pepsi are both products of Cola, but Coca Cola had a lessened effect on the eggs. The phosphoric acid and sugar contents contained in the soft drink Coca Cola were less than in the solution, Pepsi.Through the comparison of Cola products, it was center to see which would substance had the greatest effect. Originally, it was thought that Coca Cola would cause the most dissolution because it is such a strong acidic drink and had a high sugar content. Needless to say, this wasnt the case, and Pepsis acidic content was higher thus leading it to have a lower pH. Although Coca Cola did not have a significant amount of dissolution compared to Pepsi, it still ranked number two out of five. With a dissolution of .447g over the 24 day span, Coca Cola provided the second most decrease( American Dental Association).With a pH balance of and a high sugar content, Coca Cola was able to gain second, yet Pepsi still has Coca Cola beat.In conclusion, the carbonated drinks presented in this essay have provided a true presentation of how the dissolution of eggshells resemble the abfraction and attrition of tooth enamel( Fraunhofer, 2006).These drinks are hard on enamel. The effects stay for a lifetime, and can cause many problem areas.Carbonated drinks cause lesions, caries, and can even cause osteoporosis in actual bone structures by draining the calcium levels in your body. The effects of these soft drinks are not kind on the body. Consuming these acidic substances sets up a lifetime of problems that make you much more susceptible to enamel decay. It is okay to drink these drinks, but it is a must to do it in a moderate way. These substances contain such high acidic levels that cause demineralization in enamel.The phosphorus content of soft drinks can even limit the calcium absorption which can lead to bone loss due to diseases such as osteoporosis(American Dental Association). Some carbonated drinks affect erosion a lot less than others, but this does not add limitations for these carbonated drinks are still detrimental to ones health. Between soft drinks, Pepsi is definitely the most detrimental of all, and Dr. Pepper is the least detrimental.If carbonated soft drinks are a want, or need, this poll provides a considerate amount of information as to why Dr. Pepper would be the best option. It is still unhealthy and can cause erosion, but of the drink s, it seems to be the best option. Eggs provided a great substitute for teeth in this project. The two structures have so many common features that made it a lot easier to make a comparison. The limitations of calcium absorption played a huge part in creating this project(Texas University, 2016). The final data was fascinating to compare. The results were not the same as the hypothesis, but that made the final results the most riveting of all.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Evaluate the effectiveness of the responsive regulation model with reference to the regulatory powers and responses available under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008.
IntroductionRegulating consumer and commercial law has proven highly difficult, especially in the sassy digital age where online trading has advanced significantly over the years.1 There is now much likelihood that consumers provide be subjected to unfair and unlawful trading practices and so it is vital that all corporations ar being regulated rough-and-readyly. This will enhance consumer confidence and will bring in a beneficial effect upon the market in general. It has been utter that markets work best when consumers hire confidence in the corporations they be alloting with, yet the increase in rogue traders has significantly diluted such confidence. At present much confusion exists as to how regulators should control corporations in order to gibe that they are complying with the obligations that have been impose upon them. Consequently, the powers that have been willd to regulators under the Consumer Protection from Unfair merchandise regularisations 2008 appear somewhat ineffective on the basis that they still do not provide sufficient protection to consumers. This study will in that respectfore consider whether the influential model of antiphonary regulation that was proposed by Ayers and Braithwaite will be more effective in ensuring entry of all corporations. This will be reviewed in light of the 2008 orders and consideration as to whether consumers will be better protected under the new model will be made. In doing so, an overview of consumer protection will first be provided, followed by a review as to how effective the 2008 Regulations. Once this has been d champion, the responsive regulation model will then be analysed and consideration of its effectiveness will be made.Consumer ProtectionA consumer has been described in Lloyd Shuhfabrik Meyer & Co GmbH v Klijsen Handel BV2 as an individual or group of individuals that consumes goods and function generated within a social system. Concerns have been raised in recent years as to w hether consumers are being adequately protected from unfair and illegal trading practices.3 Hence, it has been argued that the rate of flow regime dealing with consumer protection is ineffective in that regulators do not deal with wrongful or fraudulent traders in an appropriate manner. As shown in Macaulay v Scroeder Publishing Co Ltd4 and Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Harpers Garage (Stourport) Ltd5 parties to an addment ofttimes have unequal dicker power, which highlights the importance of being able to provide protection to vulnerable consumers. Companies will have greater knowledge of the industry than private consumers and so it is integral that regulators are capable of provided appropriate protection to consumers in the event of unfairness. As noted by captain Denning in Lloyds rim v Bundy6 many of the traditional defences to contract enforcement were properly seen as merely exemplary of a general doctrine of inequality of bargaining power and all provided testimony to the fa ct that the age of laissez faire was outwearing its judicial welcome.7 This demonstrates how a free market economy no longer exists as there is often an inequality of bargaining power resulting in the need for vulnerable parties to be provided with more protection than they have required in the past.Consumer Protection from Unfair calling Regulations 2008The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 was established in order to act as a safeguard for consumers against unfair trading practices. These Regulations implemented the Unfair mercenary Practices Directive 2005/29/EC (UCPD) which intended to provide regulators with the power to impose obligations upon corporations to trade fairly. Various consumer protection laws were replaced by these Regulations as the consumer protection regime precedent to 2008 was deemed unsatisfactory in protecting consumers.8 As put by the Office of Fair Trading The Regulations introduced a general duty not to trade unfairly and seek t o ensure that traders act honestly and fairly towards their customers.9 Although the Regulations address business to business practices, the primary focus was on the protection of private consumers as determine in Office of Fair Trading v Purely Creative Ltd and Others.10 Corporations found to be in breach of the Regulations may have criminal sanctions imposed upon them by regulators and, as noted by Worthington and Britton, these extend criminal liability beyond simply misleading practices to include, in part, aggressive practices such as compulsion and harassment.11 The regulative powers and responses of regulators are therefore considered more effective under these Regulations as corporations will now be more likely found liable for adopting unfair and unlawful practices than they would have in the past. This provides greater protection to consumers who will be a lot more confident when entering into commercial transactions.These Regulations were thereby tell to herald a new e ra in consumer regulation,12 especially where online transactions are concerned as there was a great reluctance to bribe goods or services on the internet for fear of unfairness being created.13 In Tiscali UK Ltd v British Telecommunications Plc14 it was noted that the Regulations make it easier for traders based in one Member State to market and sell their products to consumers in other Member States.15 This is economically beneficial in that it contributes to the growth of the internal market. Conversely, not all agree that the Regulations are effective and instead believe that online trading still poses many risks.16 This is mainly due to the fact that not all e-traders are a signatory to the Regulations and as such regulators will be unable to control many cross-border transactions. As a result, it is imperative that consumers are aware of the risks when purchasing goods or services online and should only purchase from those traders who are a signatory to the Regulations. This should be easy to identify because traders will be prohibited from claiming that they are a signatory to the Regulations if they are not.17 Regardless of this it seems as though the Regulations are not as effective when it comes to the protection of consumers as it was hoped. Furthermore, even if protection is acquired under the Regulations, there is no take on that consumers will be compensated. This is because there is no direct right to claim compensation and instead consumers have to rely on existing civil law. 18 responsive Regulation ModelThe current law therefore appears out of date, complicated and too extremely restrictive19 and therefore highlights the need for unless falsifys to be made. A scrap of proposals have been put forward to rectify the current problems that exist, yet the extent to which these are viable is a debatable subject. Differing views as to how Regulators should deal with corporations to ensure configuration exist between those who think that corpo rations will comply with the law only when confronted with tough sanctions and those who believe that gentle persuasion works in securing business compliance with the law.20 A model of responsive regulation was thereby proposed by Ayers and Braithwaite which adopts a responsive approach by enforcing compliance strategies at first and then applying more punitive deterrent responses later on if the regulated corporation fails to comply with their obligations. They believed that corporations would be more likely to comply if an explicit enforcement pyramid was in place. An enforcement pyramid would thus include a range of enforcement sanctions ranging from persuasion, warnings and civil penalties to criminal sanctions, licence suspensions and licence revocations.21 Consequently, it would be presumed under this model that regulators would always start at the butt joint of the pyramid and then work their way up for more serious compliance failures. This model appears to replace blanket commitments with deterrence and compliance models and has been viewed as enormously influential worldwide.22This model is currently being employed by many different governments and regulators and has since been expanded upon by Braithwaite into a comprehensive regulatory and democratic ideal, which incorporates notions of deliberative democracy and restorative justice.23 This responsive regulation model does appear to be more effective than the approach that is currently being taken under the 2008 Regulations since there is no guarantee that consumers are being provided with appropriate protection. This is due to the fact that there is a lack of compensation being provided to consumers and regulators are likely to be a lot more lenient when it comes to sanctioning corporations.24 Under the pyramid model, corporations will be most likely to adopt a self-regulatory approach to ensure compliance. This is because corporations will be aware of the consequences that will be imposed if t hey do not comply with their obligations and will have been given a number of prognosiss to change any unfair practices that have been assumed. The Australian uprightness Reform Commission believes that this is the ideal approach since regulators have access to severe punishments if needed and are able to persuade corporations to undertake appropriate behaviours to ensure compliance.25 This approach promotes self-regulation and provides corporations with the ability to change, through effective persuasion, before the use of penalties arises. Only those who ignore the persuasive practices of regulators will be penalised, which ensures that only corporations who deserve to be punished will be.26On the other hand, it has been argued that voluntary compliance at the bottom of the pyramid may prove unattainable as a result of the constant threats of more punitive sanctions at the top.27 Furthermore, it cannot be said that corporations will actually respond to the pressures imposed by regulators since it has been said that corporate behaviour is not driven by regulatory pressure but rather cultural or competitive pressures.28 In accordance with this, it could be suggested that the responsive regulation model will be appropriate for many corporations, though there will be some corporations where this approach will be ineffective. It would therefore be better for corporations to be analysed individually in order to consider what the best approach would be to ensure compliance since there will be certain circumstances whereby the pyramid approach will not be appropriate.29 An example would be where there are potentially catastrophic risks that are being controlled. Here, it would not be appropriate to use a step by step approach to regulation since the regulator would need to go uncoiled to the top of the pyramid when choosing an appropriate sanction. Conversely, there may be a slur whereby the risk is minimal and so mere persuasion would be needed. This situation is ideal for the responsive regulation model, though the former is not. Arguably, whilst the responsive regulation model may be better at ensuring compliance with consumer protection laws than the current 2008 Regulations are in some situations, this will not be the case for every situation. Nevertheless, given the criticisms for both approaches, it appears as though some reform to this sports stadium is needed if the regulatory approaches that are currently being adopted are improved.ConclusionThe current consumer protection regime is extremely complex when it comes to ensuring that corporations are complying with their obligations. As a result, consumers are still being put at risk when entering into commercial transactions. Although the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 attempted to act as a safeguard for consumers against unfair trading practices, it cannot be said that these are being fully realised. This is because of the limited powers that are provid ed to regulators when imposing sanctions upon corporations. Consequently, it seems as though further changes need to be made to the existing regime in order to guarantee the protection of consumers. Ayers and Braithwaite model of responsive regulation does provide regulators with appropriate powers to imposes pertinent sanctions upon corporations, whilst at the same time providing them with the ability to make necessary changes. This step-by-step approach does appear fair in that corporations are initially given the chance to rectify their non-compliance activities. Nevertheless, because this model will not be applicable to all corporations, it has been considered largely ineffective in making sure that corporations actually respond to regulatory pressure. Corporations should therefore be analysed individually in order to consider what the best approach to take would be. This will prevent unfairness and will enable consumers to have greater confidence when entering into commercial transactions. This will be a lot more beneficial for the economy overall and online trading will be likely to increase even further.BibliographyBooks F Sudweeks and C T Romm., Doing line of products on the Internet Opportunities and Pitfalls with 39 Figures (United States Springer, Business & Economics).I Ayres and J Braithwaite. antiphonal Regulation (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1992).I Worthington and C Britton., Business Environment, (6th edn Pearson Education, 2009).R Baldwin, M Cave and M Lodge., Understanding Regulation Theory, Strategy and Practice (Oxford Oxford University Press, 2011).R Kagan and J Scholz., The Criminology of the Corporation in K Hawkins and J Thomas., Enforcing Regulation (Boston Kluwer, 1984). daybook ArticlesD Hertzell., Time to Redress the Balance (2011) 161 New Law Journal 683, Issue 7466.F Haines., Corporate Regulation Beyond Punish or Persuade (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1997).H Thorpe., Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading (2008) 32 Co mpanys Secretary Review 2.J Braithwaite., Responsive Regulation and Developing Economies (2006) 34 World Development 884.L Timmermann., Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008, Part 2 (2009) Trusted Shops, Accessed 13 April 2014.M J Trebilcock., The Doctrine of Inequality of Bargaining Power Post-Benthamite Economics in the House of Lords (1976) 26 University of Toronto Law Journal 4.Office of Fair Trading., Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (2008) nurture for Businesses on the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations, Accessed 13 April, 2014.P Stokes., New OFT Powers in the Credit Clamp-Down (2005) 155 New Law Journal 236, Issue 7164.R Baldwin and J Black., Really Responsive Regulation Law Society Economy, Working Papers, 5 Accessed 12 April 2014.S Brown., Protection of the Small Business as Credit Consumer Paying Lip Service to Protection of the Vulnerable or Providing a Real Service to the Struggling Entrepreneur? (2012), 41 gross Law World Review 1.Case LawEsso Petroleum Co Ltd v Harpers Garage (Stourport) Ltd 1968 AC 269Lloyd Shuhfabrik Meyer & Co GmbH v Klijsen Handel BV 1999 ETMR 690Lloyds Bank v Bundy 1974 3 WLR 501Macaulay v Scroeder Publishing Co Ltd 1974 1 WLR 1308 (HL)Office of Fair Trading v Purely Creative Ltd and Others 2011 EWHC 106 (Ch)Tiscali UK Ltd v British Telecommunications Plc 2008 EWHC 3129 (QB)1 F Sudweeks and C T Romm., Doing Business on the Internet Opportunities and Pitfalls with 39 Figures (United States Springer, Business & Economics) 9.2 1999 ETMR 6903 P Stokes., New OFT Powers in the Credit Clamp-Down (2005) 155 New Law Journal 236, Issue 7164.4 1974 1 WLR 1308 (HL)5 1968 AC 2696 1974 3 WLR 5017 M J Trebilcock., The Doctrine of Inequality of Bargaining Power Post-Benthamite Economics in the House of Lords (1976) 26 University of Toronto Law Journal 4, 359.8 S Brown., Protection of the Small Business as Credit Consumer Paying Lip Service to Protection of the Vulnerable or P roviding a Real Service to the Struggling Entrepreneur? (2012), 41 Common Law World Review 1, 59.9 Office of Fair Trading., Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (2008) Information for Businesses on the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations, Accessed 13 April, 2014.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Alternative Method of Learning English
English oral was a difficult subject in secondary school. I felt nervous and embarrassed when I was covering in English. I found no method to tackle the fear. In secondary 6, I joined an activity named Interviewing Tourists. We interviewed tourists asking where they were produce from, what they felt ab unwrap Hong Kong The difference of speaking English in school and outside is that outdoor speaking provides more opportunities to talk. In school, we only had chance to speak in lessons.But most of the time the teacher was speaking. At the activity, we were forced to speak because foreigners may only understand English. Most of the time we felt more pull when are talking to the local. Actually, we do not realize the common mistakes we made, like Chinglish. However, it is better to learn English from foreigners. They talked in the most natural, fluent way. That is why schools bring in foreign teachers to teach speaking English. Teachers taught us the skills to deal with exams.But w hat we were talking to the tourists were something we seldom discussed such as cuisine and cultural. These were funny and I forgot what nervous is thought out the activity. In conclusion, I lead keep practicing to improve my English. At this college, I found we have a lot of opportunities such as presenting projects and I will not hesitate to discuss the projects in English. I found there are some foreign students and I am going to make friends with them in order to speak more. Word count 255
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Particular audience Essay
It is confidence building to remember that all experts were at one clip students and entry-level members in their career fields. With this in mind it will help to alleviate some of the stress and anxiety you might feel when you first make butt with them. There are many affirmable avenues to locating and interviewing an expert. However, there are key tactics that can be utilized in order to change magnitude your chances of landing your first choice. This brief essay will outline a plan of action in order to increase the odds of let outing victory with your expert interview.To begin, make a list of possible experts relevant to your subject. Some of the best ways to find these experts are in calendar of events in newspapers, magazines and on television. By keeping your options open you can rest assured that if for some reason one of the experts does not wish to participate, you will at least pitch back-up options. The next key, after locating your expert and establishing a method of contact whether online of offline is to establish your credibility. Tell them or send them a link to where they can find examples of your work, or of the institution that you represent.This will show them that you are legitimate and that your will reach a particular audience. Once you have established a works relationship you need to set a date and time. Remember that you are asking for their time, so be as flexible and accommodating as possible without compromising your deadline. When the interview comes, be prepared. Have your recording equipment ready and make sure you have done your research so that you can ask insightful questions. The more prepared you are, the more relaxed you will be. At the conclusion, let them know you will send them a copy of the interview for their records and thank them for their time.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Book Review on Home by Marilynne Robinson Essay
Lost and alone, will Glory and diddly-squat play themselves? give they know what family unfeignedly means? Perhaps, all they simply need is one another and their father. Glory had been grief-stricken, being left by the man she trusted, leaving her with zipper save to return to the old house in Iowa, where her frail dad lives alone. There she was, feeling neglected and worthless while, a keen-sighted with her father, awaits the surprising return of her long lost brother, Jack. A man with a troubled past and in an uncertain state, Jack comes home looking distressed solely grateful.He was distinct among his siblings ever since, enjoying the thrill of creating troubles but deep inside, he is a good and caring soulfulness. Unfortunately, guilt has eaten him. Remorse caused by the wrong decisions he had made towards his penny-pinching ones and the unwillingness to forgive himself. While the two ar battling their own wars, their father is trying to make amends with them because he , too, is feeling uniform a failure as a dad, especially to Jack. He was not a perfect father but he tried to be, wanting what was best for his children.The return of Jack has morose the three lives around and also Ames and his familys. It has opened the eyes and heart of each one, addressing to their many concerns and problems, internally and within the family. Jack and Glory had both found a confidant in each other, helping cure their personal pains little by little. The simple gestures and conversations they had had built a growing bond amidst brother and infant. The love and care turn inn to each other and their dad had compensated the past sorrows they had experienced. These hand made Jack and Glory whole again, being the person they once were or hoped to be.After eitheraffair the Boughtons have gone through, all the troubles and heartaches, they were finally able to feel what happiness is through the realization that the family is the most important thing in ones life b ecause here, there is unconditional love and trust. Family is where they have found themselves, a place where they can rightfully call home. psychoanalysis Nothing can compare to a familys love for one another. Home is a novel more or less family. Robert Boughton had constant questions and worries close his children. He everlastingly seemed tired because of the sadness and guilt he feels for thinking he was a failure as a father.He has troubled children, showing that one increase in a Christian home has no certainty that he/she will lead a Christian life. It still depends on ones own choice and apparently, Jack has not made the right ones. He has finally come home, but was almost unrecognizable and distant. He felt despicable and surprised for being treated so well, though have caused much trouble, because he led a hard life while away. Jack is a good person, as mentioned by Ames who is evidently most irritated at him, knowing he has committed many mistakes and trying to beco me a reform person.He struggles everyday with his dilemmas, feeling like a disgrace to the family, and wanting to be at peace but cant seem to find it. Slowly, with his familys help, he began to heal and change, but not wholly up until the end. Jack left, as suggested by his caring brother Teddy, for the sake of their ailing father. He did not want to cause anymore trouble and see his father suffer, but he did stand for to come home if he needs help, realizing that families are forever. Both Teddy and Glory will be there. But the soul finds its own home if it even has a home at all Glory, like Jack, is lost, alone and bitter.She carries on life with a heavy heart, as she takes care of her ailing father and a problematic brother. Feeling hopeless, she seeks attention and fortunately, her two brothers show it to her. She understands Jack, but not completely because of his secretive character and he, too, understood her, her feelings and battles. As the story progresses, there was a growing bond between brother and sister, whether it was winning care of their father or sharing thoughts and opinions, though avoiding to bring up the pressing issues amongst them.Nevertheless, they became better individuals because of each other. The Lord truly is wonderful The story was coherent chronologically, with the occasional recalling of the past. It started with the return of Glory and Jack until his leaving. It is equally about Glorys and Jacks internal conflict. The story revolves around overcoming the misfortunes each has encountered, callable to appalling decisions, through the understanding and care of family. Another internal conflict was the minister, feeling like a failure as a dad.With these being the briny secret plans, the subplots would be the relationship of Jack and Ames, together with his family, and the coming home of Teddy. The external problem was the coming home of Jack and Glory. He seemed distracted, causing worry to his sister and father and she, le ft unmarried, cheated, and alone. The narration of the story is character-based since the plot unfolds through the opinions and decisions made by the characters, not from having this setting to the next.No doubt that the story reflects religion, the uncertainty that everyone feels about it because there, as mentioned by Ames, is no absolute knowledge on what it really is. The stories among the characters parallel some characters and stories in the Bible such as David, Lazarus and The Prodigal Son. The plot evolved from the slight change in emotions. Glory began to feel needed and responsible in making her brother feel better and her father well, while Jack felt being part of the family. He saw and realized that his family would accept him for who he is and would try to do everything to make him feel welcome.In the outside, the plot was about the coming home and duties of both Glory and Jack, visiting of Ames and Teddy, and the parting of Jack. There were a lot of themes in the story such as guilt, loneliness, resentment and religion, but the main theme was the importance of the relationship among family members. It can help make everything much better, though slowly but surely. The theme is based from the belief of Robinson and I, definitely, agree with her. Family is the basic unit of society and is the foundation of every individual.The relationship among members should be strong in order for all of them to be stable and complete as each individual. Personal Application/Impression Home was a hard read. Though an avid reader, the book was more complicated and confusing compared to the fiction novels I normally read. The words have so much meaning and the plots were not written in a sequence, leaving me puzzled. I soon began to understand the setting of the story and the meaning of those sentences that seemed too long after reading more.Marilynne Robinson writes Home in a reminiscing manner and with thorough explanations of the actions done by the characters. I have never read a novel as defined as this, enabling me to imagine the exact happenings in the story. Home has touched me, making me appraise my family even more. I can feel the characters experiences when it comes to family, their effort to become closer and trying to offer help. It takes me from keeping my own problems to sharing it with my family because I now truly realize that they would accept me for who I am and help me with my troubles.The characters acted the way people actually do in real life and the settings were a possibility. Home truly is a beautiful and moving book, showing the importance of family. However I did not enjoy the writing as much, though the storyline and intention of the occasion was wonderful. It was written with much effort, but a little too dragging and confusing. Maybe it was confusing because partly, I did not get to read the first book, Gilead, but the plots did jump from one to the other.Note that it is a must to read Gilead first for better understanding and appreciation of Home. The developing of the story was slow and some do enjoy that type of writing but I dont so, it was a little dragging. It was hard to turn to the next page if the ending of a page is not as interesting. Robinson built a sturdy plot but bores some readers like me. It did not have action in every page but again, it is interesting for those who love to imagine being the character himself. A well-written novel, but no work of fiction is perfect for everybody.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Alternative Medicines Final
Analyze how western (aliphatic) medicine could take in from incorporating more east (holistic) medicine. Use at least three specific examples. (6 points) Aliphatic medicine could benefit from many of the principles of holistic medicine. One of the eight basic principles of holistic wellness care is that health requires an Integration of mind, body and spirit. This Idea Is present In meditation and research suggests that those who meditate are healthier. Especially In regard to sieve Induced Illnesses.Western medicine could also benefit from the idea that the individual must affirm arsenal responsibility for their own health. Too often in our cabaret people dont want to change the habits that are making them unhealthy. Another principle that could provide benefit to western medicine is the idea that disease is a cognitive process and provides an opportunity for personal growth. Currently western medicine views disease as a negative and focuses on treating symptoms. 2. You are dev eloping a cardiac rehab coterie for patients after they get hold of heart surgery.You could use Respiratory One Method, Mindfulness Meditation, or Imagery. Explain which one you choose to use and why. 4 points) Studies Indicate that board Is an effective treatment In cardiac disorders, reducing PCs and Instances of SW, however it does not specify post cardiac surgery results. On the other hand resourcefulness has proved to be helpful pre and post surgery in recovery times. Imagery shows to benefit blowfly, reduce inflammation, reduce anxiety, help with hurt and even emend raisecer patients outcomes. Based on its wide range of benefits, I would utilize Imagery. 3.You want to try an Eastern therapy (Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture, or Arrived) for your asthma. shoot one and answer for your reasoning. (4 points) I would choose Acupuncture based on the research and experiments mentioned in the book. Several different studies by Berger and Fund Indicate acupuncture su perior to player acupuncture for relieving acute symptoms of despise. peg 330. In reading throughout the book, I was unable to find any evidence regarding the other treatment options in sexual congress to asthma. Other tests conducted referenced on pages 335-337 indicate improvements in various symptoms regarding asthma. . You are experiencing chronic low back incommode. Explain which alternative health practitioner you ordain volt and detail the reasons why you choose him/her. (4 points) treatment would have been the best treatment option. However, while researching this question I found that progressive relaxation has prove benefit as well as the ability to increase pain tolerance. Acupuncture seems to be the most effective treatment option as thither are more studies that support its effectiveness. 5. You have an infection and decide to complement your prescription medicine with aromatherapy.Describe which essential oil you choose, what method of application ND why. (4 poin ts) I would choose Lavender as a topical application to the infected site. in 1910 Gatehouse burned himself badly in a laboratory experiment. He employ Lavender as a rinse to treat the gangrene that developed at the burn site. This essential oil stopped the gasification of the tissue. 6. You are experiencing a nerve-wracking time in your life. Assess which complementary or alternative health therapies you will incorporate into your schedule to reduce your stress. Evaluate how they will benefit you. Choose at least three. (6 points)Aromatherapy Certain essential oils such as lavender, rose, enroll and vituperating are well known for the ability to potentially reduce stress. Essential oils have the potential to reduce stress, induce deep relaxation and promote better sleep. Music Therapy Research indicates that music can affect mood states, decrease pain and increase cognitive function. Music selection must be appropriate to the desired effect. Exercise Research concluded, High st ress college students who participated in an exercise political platform reported greater decreases in depression than those who articulated in a relaxation program or no treatment. Another study indicated a utmost intensity workout program significantly reduced psychological tension. 7. You are choosing an herbal remedy to take for anxiety. Examine which herb you choose and why, including pharmacological properties, action, typeface effects, and interactions. (4 points) I would choose Kava Kava as it is considered non-addictive anxiety reducing agent comparable to painlessnesss. It has demonstrated effects as a sedative, analgesic, anticonvulsant and tendon relaxant. Kava seems to act on he limbic system, which helps regulate the emotional process in the brain.Side effects include sleepiness and at high doses it can increase RFC, cause blood in the urine, decrease platelet count and cause shortness of breath. Research shows that using kava even after 3 months can result in live r failure and death. So great caution needs to be used in taking this herb. Therapy could assist an athletes performance. adjourn a sport and be specific. (4 points) Football players face incredible impact on Joints, muscle tissues, tendons and ligaments. It is common for them to receive professional massage to address these disgraced and stressed areas.Benefits of massage would affect the circulatory and muscular systems by increasing circulation and enhancing venous return. Statistically significant results in reducing welling has been observed. Football players would also benefit from massage and its effects that it has on the skeletal system. It would increase Joint mobility and flexibility. Massage would also greatly benefit the nervous system in reducing pain response and increasing relaxation. 9. Analyze the legal and ethical issues of implementing Erik energy therapy into the hospital setting. 4 points) The legal issues regarding implementing Erik therapy into hospitals ar e there are no recognized regulative or governing board. So the training, education and protocols are inconsistent and hospitals cannot guarantee the quality of treatment or care offered by these professionals. Therefore they cant ethically urge on these treatments without any standards of care. 10. Because of your family history, you are concerned about getting cancer. Evaluate hat steps you could change in your environment to decrease your health risk.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Unemployment Rate – Article Review
THE countrys unemployment wander currently stands at 3. 1 per centime compared with the 3. 4 per cent last year, the Dewan Negara heard yesterday. Deputy Human Resources Minister Datuk Maznah Mazlan said the politics was in full harnessing its workforce to keep the unemployment rate at four per cent and below. This was because according to international standards, this was considered full employment. consort to the Statistics Department, the component of unemployment last year was 3. 4 per cent or 387,9000 commonwealth. Of the total, 65,500 were graduates. In the first quarter of this year, the unemployment percentage dropped to 3. per cent or 381,300. Of the number 71,600 were graduates, she said responding to Senator Khoo Soo Seang. Maznah said the presidency had implemented measures to function unemployed graduates. These include offering a short improvement scheme with government departments, opportunities for apprenticeship and internship, and the 1Malaysia Training Sc heme. Under the short service scheme, graduates who have not secured hypothesises in six months after completing their studies have the opportunity to intern at participating government linked companies for a year and receive an anyowance of RM1,000 a month.Upon completion, the GLCs will assist in finding permanent positions for them. The programmes are to enhance the graduates marketability and provide exposure so that they do not have to rely on the government for employment except can start their own businesses, she said. word about During 2011 the employment rate decreases from 3. 4% to 3. 1% due to the government effort to control all the recourse and to maintain the unemployment rate under 4%. Based on the international standard the unemployment rate of 4% and below considered as full employment.Although the number of people that unemployed are change magnitude but the number of unemployed graduates are increasing. Due to this situation, the government had executed measur es to help graduates to get a job. The government offer a short service scheme which suffer a job opportunity to them also giving them skills and internship. The allowance are also provided under the short service scheme. This will help to give the graduates exposure and encourage them to do their own business instead of relying on the government for the job.Analysis. Based on the article, we can conclude that the type of unemployment that we can see is frictional unemployment. This type of the unemployment pop offs when people are in between jobs, entering and reentering the labor force. This may happen when fresh graduates are actively seeking for a job. The numbers of unemployed graduates increase by 9. 3% maybe due to the lack of soft skills and get laid that most employers seek. The measure that the government took to control the unemployment is direct control measure, which is providing training and technical education and job creation in various sectors in an economy.The governments want to encourage the graduates to own a business because when thither are more trade and transaction, the government revenue will increase. This will lead to economic growth and therefore can increase in GDP. The executions of fall the unemployment rate The first effect of decreasing unemployment rate is the incomes will increases. This will lead towards to more buying power and accelerating the inflation rate. Thus, this will effect to the distribution of income, the savings, production cost and balance of trade.The second effect of unemployment is new businesses will have a hard time succeeding, because everyone is already employed, who is going to work for them? New businesses will have to raise struggle to entice people to work there which again raises wages and lowers profits to a point where it makes no sense to even start the business. Great levels of unemployment are around 3-5%. The pros and cons of decreasing unemployment rate The pro of decreasing unemplo yment rate is increase of income and self-respect. Secondly, increase the job skills. Thirdly, decrease social and political problems.Fourthly, the gross national product gap becomes narrower because the GNP gap will almost towards to potential GNP. The contras of decreasing unemployment rate are inflation will occur and the new business will have hard time to survive. The effect of decreasing rate of unemployment towards golf club The first effect is employment may bring a increase in social outings and interactions with new(prenominal) people, including friends. Secondly, employment the competition for jobs and the negotiation power of the individual increases and thus also the living standard of people with the salaries packages and income higher.Thirdly, employment also brings up calm and steadiness amongst the tax paying citizens. For the fresh graduate employees, they will not face burden to settle their loans. Recommendation or solution The first solution is, government can use progressive tax rate depends on the number of employees and use the current Malaysia corporeal Tax. If we use this method, the company in Malaysia will hire more employees in order to decrease the corporate tax and lead to the zero unemployment rates.The second solution is government can open up Malaysian mind to new kind of industry that can make the Earth as better step to the fore in the future. For example, this legislation would create an estimated 3 million new jobs by opening closed areas of the outer(a) Continental Shelf which is between Malaysia and Brunei for oil and gas exploration, and streamlining the licensing of nuclear power plants. This also would create royalty revenues for the government that the bill directs to a new trust fund that can promote renewable energy.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Lord of Flies
Write on one of the undermentioned hear prompts. The essay must be a formal literary multi-paragraph essay Oust resembling you learned last year) with a hook, prCICS, a clear thesis with reasons, topic sentences, Cads, Cams, conclusion, third person, impersonate tense, proper MEAL heading, citations. The number of paragraphs often depends on your organization of ideas. It always must be a fully fleshed out, insightful interpretation of this novel with specific information drawn from the text.For this essay you must excogitate your essay into a 4 paragraph essay. If you do not call for quotes for Cads, it is an automatic F because solely literary essays must book proof to support your opinion. I will be looking for an insightful discussion and convincing argument load-bearing(a) your views of this novel. Remember, unlike an objective exam, you are in control when you put out an essay. Show what you know. The only materials you whitethorn bring into class are your book with y our quotes slighted, your text annotated, or tabs to religious service you locate pages you will take.You will only have the one period to complete your essay, so you need to have thought near your ideas ahead of time. You may excessively put Cads (but only Cads on a 3 by 5 card) PROMPT 1 In the novel the Lord of the Flies, author William beautify constantly has the reader questioning the true nature of human beings?whether it is good or bad. Write an essay that discusses Gildings theme that humans are essentially good OR that humans are essentially bad. study 1 SIDE and convince your audience with at least two cited examples from the text for each supporting paragraph.You may include examples from history as part of your discussion and reasoning in your commentary, remember, your essay is an digest of THE NOVEL showing how Gilding treated the idea that humans are essentially good OR that humans are essentially bad. PROMPT 2 During pre-election campaigns, Presidential cand idates can say absolutely anything about their opponents and their own qualities as leaders, the policies they will Hampton, and the direction they will lead the nation if they are elected.However, citizens can fall out the most reliable evaluation of their Presidential potentials through analyzing their candidates past and their established records of leadership (How have Ralph and prick already demonstrated leadership qualities) In Lord of the judging by their records, which boy would collide with the outmatch national leader? Write an essay that discusses whether Jack or Ralph would make the best national leader.You may consider such areas as personal freedoms, environmental policy, labor/industry, citizen satisfaction, law and order, etc. Choose ONE SIDE and convince your audience with at least two cited examples from the text for each supporting paragraph. You may include examples from history as part of your discussion and reasoning within your commentary, but your essay i s an analysis of THE NOVEL. What have Ralph and Jack actually DONE in the novel that Gilding is demonstrating to reveal which one would make the best leader?Lord of FliesHumankind seems to have an enormous capacity for savagery, for ferociousness, for neediness of empathy, for lack of compassion. This quote introduces the idea that humans have a brutal nature and are drawn past from the civilized ways of life because of it. When true human nature is allowed to be seen, these savagely characteristics are do visible and these other courteous ways of life are forgotten.In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Gilding, the boys choose to allow Jacks violent and fearful leadership, abandoning Rallys authority ground on order and civilized norms, proving that mold based on savagery appeals to mans dark human nature and will overshadow leadership based on civility to the detriment of beau monde. This realization is shown in the novel when, at the beginning, all of the boys follow the aforesaid(prenominal) rules that have been put on them for their whole lives, but as the story progresses Jack follows his savagery human instincts and some boys follow.At he end of the story all of the boys true selves are exposed and savagery and brutality have consumed the boys. At the start of the novel,while on the island the boys follow the rules that society has always made them follow, making the Island a peaceful and organized society but very early on it is made known that the boys dont lack to follow these norms that have been put on them their entire life. When they first get to the island, they keep order by electing a leader. We ought to have a hive to decide thingsLets have a vote TLS toy of take was almost as pleasing as the conch. peg. 22. Voting Is something that is done In a normal society and they boys take this systematic way of making decisions and use It on the Island. This shows that for a small amount of time, their rhythmical ways of living stay w ith them because this Is what seems normal to them. They have been taught these ways to do things their entire life and they have been enforced by adults so they continue to do this while on he Island.Adding on to that, the boys also take things that they have learned In school and apply It to the Island. While deciding who should talk during assemblies, Ralph suggests that, Well have to have Hands up Like at school Then Ill give him the conch He can detain It when hes speaking. peg. 33 Ralph, suggests this because this Is what they have been taught to do In school when they have something to say that way chaos and tumult Is prevented.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
Are Marketers Responsible for the Use of Harmful Products in Society? Essay
Mattel Toys is currently in the process of withdrawing millions of toys released in the market following disclosures that the toys check advantageously high elements of lead in their paint. Excess lead freighter be painful if ingested by children and can cause mental retardation, a fact that senior managers at Mattel would have been soundly aw atomic number 18 of. With the inculpation game on and Mattel managers assuming the purpose of closely intentioned victims of callous suppliers, consumers can do little however wait for the next big scandal.The Mattel incident is just another sordid episode in the recital of marketers being responsible for the use of harmful products in rules of order. Whilst many another(prenominal) people consider ethical selling to be an oxymoron, in that location also exists a body of thinkers who obtain that marketers contri alonee to social and economic development, are largely ethical and sell products that fulfil customer needs and are of use to society. The issue, term discussed at great length by business experts, social researchers and selling academics remains topical and an issue that is far-off from resolution.The concept of bodily social function (CSR) enjoins business firms to consider social and friendship interests by winning responsibility for the effect of their actions on customers, shareholders, the community, and the environment in all areas of work. This concept extends beyond the scope of be legislation and encompasses voluntary actions to ensure well being and improvement of quality of life of all stakeholders and the community at large. Milton Friedman, as is well known, had something very different to say.In his words, In a free economy, there is one and only one social responsibility of business to use its resources to increase its profits as long as it stays within the rules of the game (Lantos, 2001, p 603) Friedman goes on to emphasise few trends could so thoroughly undermine the v ery foundation of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible.This is a fundamentally subversive doctrine (Anderson, 1989, p. 3) Friedman is not alone in such thoughts and there appear to be a number of experts who share such views. Donaldson, for example states that corporate executives who do not seek profits above all else are irresponsible in performing their functions. (Mas rushnhas, 1995, p 46)Even while CSR is becoming a common enough flourish on corporate websites, many corporations, as is evidenced by the Mattel mooring still firmly believe in Friedmans wisdom..Whilst the protection and furtherance of customer interest is apparently among the foremost objectives of the CSR strategy of business corporations, corporate history is studded with scandals involving company wrongdoing in areas of marketing, finance, tax revenue evasion, environmental degradation, and com munity activity. CSR tenets demand firms to sell products that are, in the first instance, safe and non injurious to consumers, the immediate community, the society at large and the environment, regardless of profitability considerations or perceived customer value.Notwithstanding the current compulsion with CSR (evidenced among other things by the growing Fair Trade movement), history makes a strong case for its legitimate and widespread denial by marketers and is replete with instances of companies not only introducing harmful goods in the market but also making strenuous efforts to ensure its widespread use and proliferation.Marketing has, during the past few decades do the most critical function of the modern day corporation. Even as the constant practice of marketing strategy has led to the enormous expansion of businesses, a number of ethical issues have manifested themselves in occidental nations, first as general concerns, and later as clear enunciations by various exper ts. Most of these issues occupy to the introduction and propagation of products that harm and disempower consumers and communities. Marketing activity, according to these experts, can be damaging to the face-to-face excerpt and autonomy of the buyer, manipulative of social values, and deceptive in its message.In an article on Is there much to Ethical Marketing than Marketing Ethics Michel Brennan (1991, p 10) argues that the ultimate goal in a moneymaking(prenominal) venture is some sort of profit achievement. The needs and wants of consumers as well as the wider concerns for their impact on society become relevant only to the extent of their effect on the profitability of the organisation. With marketers following this cost many inequities have crept into the practice of marketing.It is particularly seen to be biased against minorities analogous gays and ethnic groups, guilty of unethical practices against the elderly, who are targeted with products related to time shares, a nd living trusts, exploitative of children, who are influenced at impressionable stages to consume colicky food and drinks, and buy undesirable fashion ware, derogatory towards women, who are used to elicit judgements on sexual urge rather than product attributes, and cynically manipulative of the developing world, which is made the dumping ground for unnecessary, and often harmful, goods.George Ritzer, in his celebrated book The McDonaldization of Society, (1993, p 37) illustrates in graphic detail the all pervasive and malefic impact that mass marketing can have on humankind. Ritzer argues that McDonaldization refers to a process wherein the principles of the turbulent-food industry, namely efficiency, predictability, calculability, and program by-line through technology are applied to numerous sectors of society on a global basis.This process, while being immensely profitable to businesses, has the potential to cause great harm to society. In McDonalds, customers entering fa st food outlets are manipulated to pay for their food items before tasting them, collect their orders from common distribution points, rent from a restricted and unimaginative range of unhealthy and high calorie foods, sit on awkward chairs, (thus being urged to gobble their food and vacate their places fast enough), and put their trays into the garbage on their way out. corresponding practices, with the help of mass advertising and focussed promotions, have enveloped and controlled society in numerous ways. A young study on confectionery retailing and merchandising by revealed that merchandising decisions were driven much by issues like space maximisation, profitability and customer pressure rather than by social responsibility. (Piacentinin, MacFadyen and Eadie 2000, p 463)The role of advertising in marketing has also come under severe attack by critics who feel that several harmful values like conspicuous consumption, greed, envy, emulation and self-centredness, to name a few , get strengthened by advertising. Whilst reactions like these do carry elements of self righteous extremism, the argument that advertising can be more than restrained and less blatantly aggressive in promoting consumption, particularly for products that appear to be harmful to vulnerable segments of society, is also valid.Developments in technology, consumer response and behaviour, and marketing thought have led to the introduction of a number of variables that have altered both the practice of marketing and its perception in the eyes of practitioners, theoreticians and students. forward motion in communication and internet technology has created a proliferation of information and provided consumers with an array of choices. Not all of these developments have been positive. Computer and electronic communication technology have made it possible for large organisations to capture and blood line personal and some times very private data, on huge scales, thus leading to intrusions into the personal space and security of individuals.Recent trends in the west have reflected the emergence of a different line of thinking, namely locationmodernism, in most areas of human thought and endeavour. Whilst modern marketing thought, exemplified by the McDonaldized society, follows extols the superiority of motorized working, as well as extreme standardisation, and works on the achievement of progressive debasement of earth post modernism bewilders with its plurality of currents and styles, characterised by the juxtaposition of opposing thoughts.In marketing situations, the emergence of post modernism is reflected by the fragmentation of society, the rise of individuals, greater awareness in marketers of their ethical responsibilities and the development of movements like that of Fair Trade. The concept of QOL (Quality of Life) marketing is also rapidly gaining ground. QOL concepts broadly require marketers to enhance customer well being and satisfaction without harming either the community or the various stakeholders. (Sirgy, and Dong-Jin, 1996, p22) QOL, by its very scope, is applicable to many marketing decisions and especially to the selling of harmful products.While post modernist thinkers like Stephen Brown have been crimson in their criticism of modern marketing thought, especially on the irrelevance of mass marketing in an increasingly fragmented and more informed society, the larger corporate response favours staying with accepted marketing proverb and, of late, tweaking the marketing mix to include ethical concerns.Thus whilst there is an appreciation of the changed environment, its demands are yet to be addressed sufficiently in the absence of concretised strategies that can be applied to maintain and wrest rivalrous advantage. Intensive research will no doubt provide strategies that can cope with the changed realities in the market place and enable marketing to work towards social good.In summation it would appear that while the mo vement to lift in ethics into the marketing of products is gaining headway much work still needs to be make and marketers need to internalise the tenets of corporate social responsibility in their working attitudes. CSR objectives would be very well served if marketers, even as they strive for competitive advantage and business profits also take care to observe time held values like honesty and exactitude, gratitude, justice, and protection of the health and safety of others.ReferencesBrennan, M, 1991, Is there more to ethical marketing than marketing ethics, Marketing Bulletin, Vol. 2, Pgs 8 to 17Mascarenhas, OAJ. 1995, Exonerating unethical marketing executive behaviours A diagnostic framework, daybook of Marketing, Vol.59, No.2, 43-57.Lantos, GP. 2001, The boundaries of strategic corporate responsibility, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.18, No.7, 595-630Nantel, J, 1996, Marketing ethics, Is there more to it than the utilitarian approach?, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 30, No. 5, Pgs 9 to 19Piacentinin, M, MacFadyen, L., & Eadie, D. 2000, Corporate social responsibility in food retailing, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 28, No.11, 459-469.Ritzer, G, 1993, The McDonaldization of Society, Pine Forge implore Revised edition (September 1995)Sirgy, MJ. & Dong-Jin, L. 1996, Setting socially responsible marketing objectives A quality-of-life approach, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 30, No. 5, 20-34.
Friday, May 17, 2019
Potato Osmosis Lab Report
bring upIn this experiment was designed to study the effect of a concentrated solution applied to sporting and clean potatoes. The solutions impact among the potatoes were to be either hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic. The potatoes were first cut into heat with a chela cutter, and then weighed after being cut. The white and engaging potatoes weights ranged from .005-.015 grams.A total of 18 edulcorate solutions are to be made over the course of 3 trials. In individually trial, 6 diametric types of solutions are to be made. (0% sugar, 10% sugar, 20% sugar, 30% sugar, 40% sugar, and 50% sugar). For each trial, in 6 plastic cups, pour 100mL of water, combine the sugar that in which corresponds to the percentage of sugar, and place one potato fry in each cup. In the first and second trials, enforce the sweet potatoes. In the third trial, manipulation the white potatoes. LABELTHE CUPS ACCORDING TO THE MIXED SOLUTION Leave the potatoes to sit for a 24-hour period.Introduction Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a partially permeable membrane into a region of higher solute assiduousness in the presence of water. An isotonic solution is one in which the concentration of solutes is the same inside the electric carrel as outside the cell (STAYS THE SAME). A hypotonic solution testament have a get down concentration of solutes than the cell (SWELLS).A hypertonic solution will have a higher concentration of solutes than the cell and will have a higher osmotic pressure outside the cell than inside the cell. (SHRINKS) The prey of this experiment was to study the effects of one concentrated solution (with different percentages of solute) on white and sweet potatoes. If a .015 white potato is placed in solution with 50% sugar, then it will subdue (Hypotonic)Materials Sugar Water Potato Fry Cutter Plastic Cups Black Permanent Marker gradatory Cylinder 1 Sweet Potato 1 White PotatoProcedures1.Accumulate 1 white and 1 sweet po tato. 2.Cut potatoes into fries with a fry cutter and weigh 12 white potato fries and 6 sweet potato fries. 3.For each trial, in 6 plastic cups, pour 100mL of water, combine the sugar that in which corresponds to the percentage of sugar. LABEL THE CUPS 4.Place one potato fry in each cup. 5.In the first and second trials, use the sweet potatoes. In the third trial, use the white potatoes. 6.Leave the potato fries to sit for 24-hours.Controls The controls include the time, temperature, and 100mL of each water, ETC. Independent Variables The independent variables include the solutions tested, ETC. Dependent Variables The potatoes ability to swell, shrink or confirmation the same, ETC.Conclusion Through experimentation, If a .015 white potato is placed in solution with 50% sugar, then it will shrink hypothesis was accurately proved. To further better this experiment, I would extend the time over a course of 2 hours and would test the experiment outside on the sun.Questions What causes sugar to shrink and swell things? wherefore did some potatoes swell and others didnt that had the same weight and percentage of sugar?
Thursday, May 16, 2019
Prevention of Calcium Carbonate Precipitation in Synthetic Formation Waters
A newly gradatory confuse inhibitor for bar of Ca change precipitation in synthetical ecesis WaterssAbstractionIn this probe, a new repressive chemical report was developed. The made inhibitor is based on the aqueous answers of oxiethilidendiphosphone virulent, hydrochloric acid, ammonium chloride, polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl intoxi stick outt to forestall the precipitation of Ca carbonate in a long clip operation of the well. The laboratory surveies of new inhibitor showed that the developed inhibitor has a great suppression efficaciousness and continuance of desorption in comparing with the time-tested inhibitor SNPH-5312, which is widely use in the fieldss in Russia to forestall the precipitation of Ca carbonate. The efficiency and corrosion aggressivity of new developed inhibitor were evaluated in three different man-made formation Waterss, which contained assorted ion constrictions and were disposed for precipitation of Ca carbona te.IntroductionHuge sums of water system ar injected into the reservoir to keep the reservoir force per unit land at the needed degree, whereby, common salt deposition occurs as a consequence of the piss combination 1 . As the depletion of the oil color field and its transportation to the late phase of development with increasing high piddle cut Wellss, grading job is aggravated. Besides, there is the demand for backdown residuary oil, necessitating the consumption of modern engineerings to cave in oil recovery, including physical and chemical exposure, which besides stimulates the deposition of salts. The chief grounds of deposition of salts are fastener of thermobaric conditions in the procedure of production and the mutual exclusiveness of injected and formation Waterss 2 .Inorganic salts deposition on the inner(a) surface of oilfield equipment takes topographic point in the procedure of field development of production of moire oil. Salt precipitation occurs in a ll operation method actings of Wellss, but the most negative effects of scaling occur during oil production by electric submergible pumps ( ESPs ) 3 . Intense deposition of Ca carbonate on impellers ESP is due to the flow temperature addition of produced fluids, which is caused by the heat emanation of runing the submergible motor. Along with salt deposition in Wellss, intense salt precipitation is observed in the wellspring, oil grapevine assemblage, metering devices and installations for the readying of oil and besides in reservoir force per unit area sympathize with systems 4 .The procedure of precipitation of Ca carbonate occurs in three phases. In the first measure, ions of Ca combine with carbonate ions to organize the molecule. Following, molecules combine in microcrystals that serve as crystallisation centres for the reminder of the solution. quartz glass aggregates grow and precipitate or attached to the walls of equipment at certain sizes 5, 6 . atomic number 20 c arbonate is put in the signifier of solid white crystals. Factors act uponing the formation of carbonate sedimentations include that formation water must be supersatu scored with Ca, carbonate or hydrogen carbonate ions 7 .All take engineering of grading is divided into bar and remotion of scaling. The most effectual method is chemical method of bar by utilizing home inhibitors. Basic technologies of inhibitor shooting are divided as follows reagent bringing into the wellbore and into the formation. dot into the well is carried out by agencies of batcher dosing into the ring, into a given point along the capillary and the periodic injection into the ring through collectors. Dose into formation is done through squashing crustal plate inhibitor, injection via injection Wellss ( in force per unit area care system ) , add-on of inhibitor by proppant during fracturing ( outmatchProp ) and injection of the inhibitor with the fracturing fluid during fracturing ( ScaleFrac ) 8, 9 .The intent of this work is increasing of operational efficiency of bring forthing Wellss by bar of formation of Ca carbonate in the downhole equipment, utilizing the developed inhibiting composing.MethodsIn the conducted seek lab experiments for the readying of chemical solutions was used distilled urine, in connexion with necessity to extinguish the influence on the belongingss of the composing and the consequences of experiments of ion finding, which were contained in different fresh H2O in assorted niggardnesss and ratios of their common submersions. In the readying of look intoing composing harmonizing to the needed volume of the composing and soaking ups of constituents, were weighed delibe consec set out sum of H2O and reagents. Medical panpipes and high preciseness research lab balances were used for the make values aaof the reagents multitudes.Scale inhibitor should be to the full compatible with formation H2O without the precipitation formation while salvaging thei r belongingss 10 . For the analysis, man-made solution, the ionic composing of which is near to the composing of formation H2O, is prepared. inhibitory belongingss mostly depend on the content of Ca in the formation Waterss. Therefore, the compatibility standards can be that if in the readying of the inhibitor solutions in the H2O with a certain content of Ca2+, turbidness is non observed within 24 hours, the inhibitor at a given concentration is considered compatible with the given H2O.The prepared graduated table inhibitor should be more effectual and stable. The effectiveness of the inhibitor is evaluated by its consequence on formation H2O or man-made theoretical account of H2O. Using theoretical accounts provides high truth measurings 11 . Determination of an inhibitor s effectivity is made by appraisal of mint candy alteration of precipitation, which is formed in mineralized H2O in the armorial bearing of inhibitor with regard to H2O with no inhibitor 12 . Calculatio n of the protective consequence of an inhibitor is carried out harmonizing to the equationE % =? 100( 1 )Where Tocopherol is the scale inhibitor efficiency, m0and m are the multitudes of salt precipitate in the H2O with inhibitor and without inhibitor in gm, severally.The new graduated table inhibitor must patronage the low corrosiveness. Corrosiveness of the developed composing is evaluated through the big money decrease of mention samples after their submergence in the inhibitor solution. Corrosion aggressivity of reagents was evaluated by hydrometric method the incubus loss of the samples. The corrosion rate of samples ( denseness of steel samples is 7821 kg.m-3) was calculated from the equationVoltdegree Celsiuss=( 2 )Where Vdegree Celsiussis the corrosion rate of the used sample in mm/year, m1and m2are the mass of the surface samples before and after the trial in gm, severally, S is the surface country of samples in m2, t is the trial clip in hr.Scale inhibitors should hol d good adsorption-desorption features, heat opposition and minimum toxicity 13 . Evaluation of surface preoccupancy and desorption might of suppressing composing is performed through research lab filtering of suppressing solutions for nucleus samples. Filtration surveies of developed inhibitor on nucleus samples are investigated by utilizing the setup FDES-645 ( Formation Damage Evaluation System ) . Reservoir temperature and force per unit area conditions are applied when utilizing this setup.Result and treatmentThe consequences of surveies to find the ionic composing of the man-made formation Waterss are shown in table 1.Table 1. Characteristic of man-made formation WaterssParametersMan-made formation H2OFirstSecondThirdpH6.927.347.13Density, kg.m-3101210231018Ion content, mg/lHCO3206541633122784Carbon monoxide32-108951547312871Chlorine240508372Calcium2+171942146919836Milligram2+348952874173Sodium+10759741248K+647518692Entire dissolved salts, g/l54.1960.5661.98Type of H2O harm onizing to the Sulin s systemChloride-calciumChloride-calciumChloride-calciumHarmonizing to the categorization Sulin s system, all man-made formation Waterss are a Ca chloride type. Sulin s system is more descriptive of crude oil formation Waterss than are the other systems 14 . The wide mineralization of Waterss is located in the scope of 54 62 g/l. The theoretical accounts of H2O have the walloping concentration of hydrogen carbonate, carbonate and Ca ions, which are the chief factor of formation of Ca carbonate salt in the H2O because formation H2O must be supersaturated with these ions to precipitate this salt 15 .The developed composing of inhibitor is evaluated by finding the residuary content of scale inhibitors in samples of liquid. The concentration finding of P of inhibitor in the formation H2O is based on the reaction of phosphate ion with molybdate in acerb medium 16 . The optical density ( optical denseness ) of the obtained solutions is measured by a exposure tintometer at length ?=540 nanometer in cells with an absorbing bed thickness of 30 millimeter. The optical denseness should non transcend one. Control sample is taken as a standard solution. distributively sample is measured on photoelectrocolorimeter two or three times, the arithmetic obtained values are used for the consequence of measuring. From the obtained informations, a standardization curve is plotted by utilizing on the horizontal axis the concentration of inhibitor in mg/l, and on the perpendicular axis the magnitude of its matching optical denseness. As shown in figure 1, the ensuing values of the optical denseness are correlated with the standardization graph and the concentration of inhibitor is found in the trial solution as a consequence of the experiments. course 1. The alteration in optical denseness of the solution, depending on the content of the inhibitor in H2OEvaluation of the effectiveness action of graduated table inhibitors by their ability to forestall th e salt precipitation were carried out in the liquid solution of man-made formation Waterss. Trials were performed at a temperature of 25 ?C at the exposure clip of 24 hours. The consequences are presented in table 2.Table 2. Evaluation of the effectivity graduated table inhibitorsScale inhibitor figureChemical composing of graduated table inhibitorScale suppression efficiency ( in 30 mg/l of inhibitor ) , %First H2OSecond H2OThird H2O1Oxiethilidendiphosphone acid 3 % , ammonium chloride 4 % , polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid 4 % , hydrochloric acid 10 % , isopropyl alcoholic drink 2 % , H2O balance9190922Oxiethilidendiphosphone acid 1 % , ammonium chloride 6 % , polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid 2 % , hydrochloric acid 5 % , isopropyl alcohol 6 % , H2O balance8987883SNPH-5312, the composite reagent of P878581As shown in table 2, the consequences of the experiment revealed that the developed chemical composings have the essential protective consequence ( effectivity of more than 85 % ) for Ca carbonate in dosing rate of 30 mg/l. The inhibitor figure 1 gives the higher effectivity for bar of Ca carbonate precipitation in all formation Waterss. The difference between the inhibitors figure one and two is the alteration in mass fraction of inhibitor constituents. Inhibitor SNPH-5312 is an industrial inhibitor for bar of Ca carbonate formation, which is used in oil field. This inhibitor is based on the composite reagent of P. Table 2 illustrates that SNPH-5312 can protect Ca carbonate formation up to 87 % .Surveies have been conducted to find the compatibility of scale inhibitors with the formation Waterss. All inhibitors were compatible in three man-made formation Waterss, and the consequences showed all the above chemical composing can be prepared in the formation Waterss.The usage of chemical reagents for forestalling the deposition of salts in the Wellss is associated with the usage of chemically aggressive environments. A scale inh ibitor is anticorrosion if there is no opposing on the surface of the sample and corrosion rate does non transcend 0.1 mm /year. The blistering activity of above graduated table inhibitors was carried out by hydrometric method by utilizing metal home bases through soaking for 72 hours at 25 ?C.Table 3. Consequences of probe of the corrosion rate of graduated table inhibitorsScale inhibitorTest continuance, hourFirst H2OSecond H2OThird H2OMass decrease, gCorrosion rate, mm/yearMass decrease, gCorrosion rate, mm/yearMass decrease, gCorrosion rate, mm/year1720.00130.04040.00150.04670.00170.05292720.00170.05290.00190.05910.00200.06223720.00210.06530.00210.06530.00220.0684From the informations in table 3, it can be far-famed that all the above chemical composings showed an allowable corrosion rate ( less than 0.1 mm/year ) . Therefore, these reagents can be considered as reagents to forestall grading in Wellss.The initial concentrations of the reagents in suppressing composings are dif ferent, and so it is potential to compare the kineticss of the comparative concentrations of the solutions. The used nucleus samples had mean porousness of 20 % and permeableness of 70 mendeleviums. Figure 2 shows the consequences of finding of the comparative concentrations of the inhibitor reagents in the composings for the surface absorption procedure at temperature of 120 ?C and force per unit area of 300 standard pressure. Laboratory surveies showed that the confining surface engrossment is achieved when pumping 14 pore volumes for suppressing composings figure 1 and 2, for complete surface assimilation of SNPH-5312, 15 pore volumes must be pumped. By comparing the comparative concentrations of reagents in figure 2 during surface assimilation, it can be cerebrate that the surface assimilation is faster when utilizing suppressing composings figure 1 and 2. Harmonizing figure 2, more unvarying surface assimilation is observed in the composing figure 1.Figure 2. Concentration a lterations of the inhibitor solution in the surface assimilation procedure in the nucleusOnce the nucleus left for 24 hours to find the surface assimilation equilibrium, formation H2O is pumped into the nucleus to displace suppressing composing. Consequences of finding of the comparative concentrations of inhibitors are shown during the desorption procedure in figure 3. The optimum and recommended concentration of oxiethilidendiphosphone acid in the composing for field conditions, is 10-15 mg/l, it corresponds to the comparative concentration of 0.0001. Harmonizing to figure 2, utilizing the inhibitor SNPH-5312 can supply the needed remotion of the inhibitor, which is sufficient for effectual protection of precipitation of Ca carbonate, when pumping through the nucleus sample of 27 pore volumes of H2O. Effective protection against formation of Ca carbonate under similar conditions persists in pumping 37 pore volumes of H2O when utilizing the developed suppressing composing figure 1, and 32 pore volumes of H2O by composing figure 2. This demonstrates that the developed composing have 1.37 times greater continuance of desorption in comparing with the inhibitor SNPH-5312.( a ) ( B )Figure 3. Concentration changing of the inhibitor solution in the desorption procedure on the nucleus, ( a ) from 5 to 20 pore volumes, ( B ) from 20 to 40 info analysis on remotion of considered repressive composings show that a important part of the free inhibitor ( non-adsorbed ) is passed in pumping the first two volumes of pore infinite. The efficiency of the developed composing is explained by the mechanism of influence on the stone acidic additives belonging to its composing.DecisionsInhibitory chemical composing was developed for the bar of deposition of Ca carbonate with an optimum ratio of constituent oxiethilidendiphosphone acid 3 % , ammonium chloride 4 % , polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid 4 % , hydrochloric acid 10 % , isopropyl alcohol 2 % , H2O balance. Th e used graduated table inhibitor was evaluated in footings of influence on corrosion actions and it was in the scope of 0.040-0.053 mm/year when the maximal allowable rate is 0.1 mm/year. The new inhibitor was effectual for scale bar of Ca carbonate up to 92 % . The research lab surveies showed that the developed composings have about 1.37 times longer continuance in comparing with the desorption of the well-tried inhibitor SNPH-5312, which is widely used in the Fieldss for forestalling formation of Ca carbonate.Mentions 1 Chunfang Fan, Amy Kan, Ping Zhang, Haiping Lu, Sarah Work, Jie Yu, Mason Tomson. Scale Prediction and Inhibition for Oil and Gas Production at High Temperature/High Pressure. Society of rock oil Engineers ( SPE ) 2012 17 ( 2 ) 379-392. segment of the indoor 10.2118/130690-PA 2 J. Moghadasi, H. Muller-Steinhagen, M. Jamialahmadia, A. Sharif, M. Model Study on the Dynamicss of Oil Field Formation Damage Due to Salt Precipitation from Injection. ledger of Pe troleum acquirement and technology 2004 43 ( 3-4 ) 201217. subdivision of the interior 10.1016/j.petrol.2004.02.014 3 Neil Poynton, Alan Miller, Dmitry Konyukhov, Andre Leontieff, Ilgiz Ganiev, Alexander Voloshin. Squashing Scale Inhibitors to treasure Electric Submersible Pumps in super Fractured, Calcium Carbonate Scaling Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical host and Exhibition28-30 October 2008 Moscow, Russia. ( in Russian ) . Department of the interior 10.2118/115195-RU 4 Mackay EJ. Scale Inhibitor Application in Injection Wells to Protect Against Damage to Production Wells When does it Work. Presented at SPE European Formation Damage Conference 25-27 May 2005 Scheveningen, Netherlands. Department of the interior 10.2118/95022-MS 5 Mona El-Said, Mahmoud Ramzi, Thanaa Abdel-Moghny. Analysis of oilfield Waterss by ion chromatography to find the composing of scale deposition. Desalination 2009 249 ( 2 ) 748-756. Department of the interior 10 .1016/j.desal.2008.12.061 6 Tomson, N.B. , G. Fu, M.A. Watson, A.T. Kan. Mechanisms of mineral scale suppression. Society of Petroleum Engineers ( SPE ) 2003 18 ( 3 ) 192-199. Department of the interior 10.2118/84958-PA 7 T. 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