Saturday, August 31, 2019
Percentage composition by mass of magnesium oxide Ã¢â¬â Report Objective: To measure and calculate the ratio of magnesium to oxygen in magnesium oxide. To compare the lab ratio to the percent composition calculation based on the formula. Hypothesis: Based on the law of definite proportions, the percentage composition of magnesium oxide should be around 60% magnesium and 40% oxygen. Materials: * Goggles * Centigram or analytical balance * 2-4 cm magnesium ribbon * Steel Wool * Porcelain crucible and lid * Bunsen Burner * Retort Stand * Ring Stand and Clamp * Clay Triangle * Crucible Tongs * Glass Stirring Rod * Distilled Water Calculations + Observation: Please see the back of the report. Discussion: B) The fact that magnesium oxide was formed, which is a new substance, proved that a chemical reaction had taken place. E) Yes, the law of definite proportions is valid, because most of the other groups that had not encountered as many errors as us and they had more accurate results which were closer to the predicted compositions according to the law. The rest had similar results to us which proves that their errors were similar to ours. H) The white film on the surface of the magnesium was polished because it prevents reactions of magnesium and gas elements in the air. This was necessary because we wanted magnesium to react with oxygen and therefore had to remove the white film. Conclusion: J) Yes, the law of definite proportions is valid, because most of the other groups that had not encountered as many errors as us had more accurate results. The rest had similar results which proves that their errors were similar as well. Sources of error: You have to be very precautious while doing this experiment. Here are reasons/possible errors that could have been encountered: * The magnesium oxide could have been lost through the crucible during the heating process. This could result in the loss of the product. To prevent this, the lid should be set slightly off-center on the crucible so that only the air goes in. * When the glass stirring rod was used to crush the magnesium, there is a high chance that the magnesium oxide could have been left on it before adding the water, resulting in the loss of product. To prevent this, the stirring rod should be held above the crucible and then pour the water slowly on to the end of the stirring rod so that the water would run down into the crucible while dragging the MgO from the stirring rod. * Magnesium could have not reacted with oxygen completely. * The crucible might be left dirty with other particles in it that could have made variations in the MgO reaction. * The water could be contaminated. * All water might not have evaporated. * Magnesium having not been crushed completely into powder after reaction. * Rushing through experiment because of lack of time. * Chance of Problem with weighing scale. * Crucible had extra weight due to extra contents that were unseen.
Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the PhilosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone (titled Harry Potter and the SorcererÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone in the United States) in 1997, the books have gained an immense popularity and commercial success worldwide. They have collectively sold more than 300 million copies and have been translated into more than 63 languages. Harry has succeeded to seduced children and teenagers as well as adults. In 2001, the first book has been adapted on screen, making a benefit of 976 million dollars. Joanne Rowling, who has become the richest writer in literary history, insisted that the entire cast must be British or Irish, to keep the cultural integrity of the novels. Apart commercial success, Harry has created a huge cultural movement. Harry Potter is studied at school and incites children to read. Fan websites, forums, books and Ã¢â¬ËHarry Potter societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ are everywhere. Harry has a huge impact on its readers, and it is not uncommon to find testimonies on the web relating how Harry Potter has changed oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Harry potter is a seemingly ordinary English little boy. Orphan, he is raised by her aunt in an English suburb in Surrey. At the age of eleven he is told he is a wizard and that he has survived an attempted murder by the evil sorcerer Lord Voldermort. From this time, Harry is going To the Witchcraft and Wizardry School of Hogwarts, a medieval castle hidden from the non magical world, supposedly located in a mountainous and secluded region in Scotland. There, Harry and his friends will get through different adventures and will try to defeat Lord Voldemort. English author J. K. Rowling has set her story in Great Britain, and behind the very well written story of a little boy looking for his identity and fighting evil, it is a whole culture that is being dissected. The books, as well as the movies, are completely impregnated in British culture. Food, family, institutions, globalisation, politics, architecture, internationalism, English values, gender, clichÃ ©s, history and many other aspects are pictured and criticised. Analysing the different aspects of British culture in the books, only considering the text itself would be a mistake. In Ã¢â¬ËHarry Potter and British CultureÃ¢â¬â¢ I consider Ã¢â¬ËHarry PotterÃ¢â¬â¢ as a story with a rich literary background, as a schoolboy, as an English and worldwide phenomenon, as the friend of millions of people, as a commercial success, and an educational model. There is as much cultural aspects in the books and films than outside them. Studying the effect of Harry on people, either fans or religious detractors can teach us a lot about English culture and its disparities. My study will take into account Harry PotterÃ¢â¬â¢s British literary heritage: children literature, boarding school story, fantasy, mythology, fairy tale, RowlingÃ¢â¬â¢s work has a very rich literary background. I will as well provide an analysis of RowlingÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the books to picture and criticise British society. In addition to this, I will study the reception of the books in the Anglophone world. Bibliography: Primary texts: Rowling, Joanne K., Harry Potter and the PhilosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone (London: Bloomsbury, 1997) Rowling, Joanne K., Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (London: Bloomsbury, 1998) Rowling, Joanne K., Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (London: Bloomsbury, 1999) Rowling, Joanne K., Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (London: Bloomsbury, 2000) Rowling, Joanne K., Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (London: Bloomsbury, 2003) Rowling, Joanne K., Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (London: Bloomsbury, 2005) Rowling, Joanne K., Fantastic beasts and where to find them (London: Bloomsbury, 2001) Films: Harry Potter and the PhilosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s stone, dir. Chris Columbus (Warner Brothers, 2001) Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, dir. Chris Columbus (Warner Brothers, 2002) Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Askaban, dir. Alfonso Cuaron (Warner Brothers, 2004) Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, dir. Mike Newell (Warner Brother, 2005) Secondary Sources: Abanes, Richard, Harry Potter and the Bible: the menace beyond the magic (Camp Hill, Pa: Horizon Books, 2001) Analysis of the religious aspects in the books and of the controversy around them. Abrams, Philip, Work, urbanism and inequality: UK society today, ed. P Abrams (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978) Study of modern British society: social classes and inequalities. Anatol, Giselle Liza (Ed), Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays (Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003) Gathering of critical essays about the Harry Potter books. Analysis of different literary and cultural aspects. Blake, Andrew, The Irresistible Rise of Harry Potter (London: Verso, 2002) Study of the Harry Potter phenomenon in Britain and the world, as well as cultural aspects within the book. Butts, Dennis, Stories and Society : ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Literature in its Social Context (Basingstoke : Macmillan, 1992) Study of the influence of the society on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature. Gupta Suman, Re-reading Harry Potter (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.) Explanation of the Potter phenomenon. Text-based analysis of its social and political implications.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Dalits movement for empowerment started way back during second half of the nineteenth century with reformatory efforts to uplift the backward groups of Indian society, especially Ã¢â¬ËDalitsÃ¢â¬â¢. Later on, it turned into seeking state intervention and generating the idea of paying special attention to Dalits/untouchables. Dalits/Untouchables have been described as Ã¢â¬Å"The oppressed of the oppressed and lowest of the lowÃ¢â¬ , who have not been benefited from the opening up of modern economic, social, political and cultural opportunities. It is said say that at present, millions of people, belonging to Dalit community have been the victims of discrimination, violence, exploitation, untouchability, poverty, illiteracy, ignorance, other hate crimes and consequential disabilities for a very long time. They are treated as lesser human beings. DalitÃ¢â¬â¢s movement for empowerment was initiated by non-Brahmins of South India. It had economic and social thrusts. It demanded education and land for backwards and freedom from caste rigidities. Some economically strong but educationally backward non-Brahmins groups resisted the hold of Brahmins on land, wealth, jobs in government and education. Access of modern education to all and spree of Reform Movements of early 19th century led anti Brahmin currents to gain momentum. By the end of the 19th century, it turned into a political movement. Non-Brahmin leaders, supported by other backward communities Ã¢â¬â Muslims, Indian Christians, untouchables and tribals, desired to secure a place for themselves in modern callings, to obtain legal rights and position of power through govt.Ã¢â¬â¢s intervention. They succeeded in fixing up quotas for them in the state Government jobs. During 1874 and 1885, Mysore state reserved 20% of middle and lower level jobs in the police department for Brahmins and 80% for Muslims, Non-Brahmins Hindus and Indian Christians. From Government jobs, it spread to educational field too, in order to prepare non-Brahmins for Government jobs. Around 1909, for the first time, the lowest strata of non-Brahmin Community or the service class, earlier known as Shudras, was conceptualized politically under the name of untouchables, when the Census Commissioner suggested excluding untouchables (comprising of about 24% of the Hindu Population and 16% of the total population at that time) from Hindu fold for forthcoming 1911 Census. The proposal had divided non-Brahmin Community into two Backwards and untouchables. Also, it had immediately increased the importance of untouchables in political circle, in social circle, and in their own eyes too. It had also made numbers important in taking political decisions. The suggestion to exclude untouchables from Hindu population was not acceptable to prominent National Hindu leaders at any cost, for whom continuous decline of the number of Hindu population had already been a matter of concern. Granting special electorate to Muslims had already weakened the National movement of Independence. They were concerned that such a proposal was made intentionally to divide Indians. That was a crucial point. Since then, the assertion of Dalit leaders has travelled a long distance and has passed through various stages. The whole of 20th century, especially the first and last two decades have been especially important for political empowerment of Untouchables/Dalits. Different terms have been used for Dalits at different points of time. Each one assumed importance, as Dalit movement has passed through various stages Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËShudrasÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËOutcastsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËPanchamasÃ¢â¬â¢: Till the beginning of 20th Century, the lowest strata of Hindu Community were known as Shudras, Panchamas or outcastes. Existence of Shudras (at present referred as untouchables/Dalits) was recognized, as early as, Pre Mauryan Period (6th century BC to 3rd century BC). Though given a lower status, they were always an integral part of Hindu society. In ancient India, Shudras performed essential social and economic tasks as well as in agricultural sector. Segregation of lower castes in Hindu Society was not based on economic status or their incapability to do any intellectual work, but on cultural grounds Ã¢â¬â unclean habits, in-disciplined life style, speaking foul and abusive language etc. Conquered groups or individuals, groups engaged in menial or unclean occupations, groups clinging to the practices, which were not considered respectable, persons born illegitimately or the groups engaged in anti-social activities were treated as Shudras and were given lowest status in the society. Breaking the caste rules meant loss of caste, meaning complete ostracism or having no place in the society. Permanent loss of caste Ã¢â¬â out-caste- was considered to be the greatest catastrophe for an individual, short of death penalty. By the beginning of Christian era, the out-castes themselves developed caste hierarchy and had their own out-castes. In Western and Southern parts of India, they were kept outside the four Varnas. In the Northern and Eastern parts of India, they were very much belonged to fourth Varna Ã¢â¬Å"ShudraÃ¢â¬ , which was divided into two parts pure or non-excluded and excluded or untouchables. In ancient India all the social groups were placed more or less as a series of vertical parallels. All of the people living in a local area, whether high or low were bound together by economic and social ties and had a strong bond of mutual dependence. They cared and supported each other in fulfilling different kind of their needs. Socially, Shudras were supposed to do all sorts of menial work and serving the upper castes of the three Varnas. Respect to a person or group was never given on the basis of material success or control of power. There was hardly any room for any section of society to consider itself, as being placed in greater or lesser disadvantageous position with reference to another. Concept of forwards or backwards or feeling of exploitation of lower strata by upper castes was almost non-existent at that time. Many studies have shown that Hindu system always kept masses reconciled, if not contended in the past. Hindu Dharma taught the people that instead of holding others responsible, for all their sufferings, exploitation and miseries it was their own Ã¢â¬Å"AdharmaÃ¢â¬ (immoral behaviour), Ã¢â¬Å"AlasyaÃ¢â¬ (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance) which were to be blamed. It never prevented Shudras or others to rise in the scale of society or to earn respect of the society. In many parts of the country, people belonging to lower strata held position of power/superior status or earned respect of Hindu society. Many warrior kings of Shudra and tribal origin sought BrahminsÃ¢â¬â¢ help to acquire Kshatriyas status for themselves. Many Shudras were accepted and revered as philosophers or spiritual teachers. All troubles of lower strata of society started after the downfall of Hindu Raj and old Hindus values. Continuous invasions by Turks, Afghans and Mughals who earlier drained out the wealth of the nation to foreign lands and afterwards made India their homeland and ruled the country for centuries. Feudalistic attitude, extravagance and luxurious life style of rulers and those at the helm of authority, increased the disparity between the rulers and the ruled. Therefore, it can be said that it was not out of malice, but the circumstances, which has pushed Shudras away from the mainstream. The low status and sufferings of Shudras or their exclusion from the mainstream for centuries has gradually stopped growth of their personality and made them completely dependent on others for their livelihood. Centuries old enslavement, ignorance, suppression and ostracism shook their confidence, deteriorated severely their condition and made them to suffer inhuman treatment by other sections of the society. Depressed Class: During the nineteenth Century, in official circles lower castes were addressed as Ã¢â¬ËDepressed classes or Ã¢â¬ËExterior classes. British government in India regarded these people as Ã¢â¬ËOppressed of the oppressed and lowest of the lowÃ¢â¬â¢. Missionaries were trying to convert this section of society into Christianity. British rulers passed many Legislative regulations and administrative orders and declared denial of access to untouchables to schools, well, roads and public places as illegal. Till now, untouchable activities were combined with the intermediate castesÃ¢â¬â¢ non- Brahmin movement. But now all these developments inspired them to enter into the political arena under the name of Ã¢â¬Å"depressed classÃ¢â¬ and desired to a share in political power separately in India. Harijans: The attempt of British rulers in 1911 to exclude untouchables from Hindu population and continuous decline of number of Hindus cautioned the national leaders. In order to retain their Hindu identity, Gandhiji and his followers called them Harijans meaning the Ã¢â¬Å"people belonging to godÃ¢â¬ . On one hand, Gandhiji tried to create compassion in the hearts of forward communities for Harijans and on the other he appealed to Harijans to observe cleaner habits, so that they could mix up freely with other sections of society. Dalit leaders did not like the word Harijan as it symbolized a meek and helpless person, at the mercy and benevolence of others, and not the proud and independent human being that they were. During this period, the attention of humanitarians and reformers was also drawn towards the pathetic condition of untouchables. They took the path of Sankritisation to elevate them. In order to prevent alienation of untouchables from Hindu community, they drew the attention of forward communities towards inhuman condition of lower strata of society and tried to create compassion in their hearts for downtrodden. They gave top most priority to the abolition of untouchability. They tried to clarify that Untouchability was neither an integral part of Hinduism nor an outcome of Varna/caste system, nor have any religious sanctity, but an external impurity and sinful blot on Hinduism. They laid emphasis on education, moral regeneration and philanthropic uplift. They also appealed to untouchables to observe cleaner habits, so that they could mix up with other sections freely and become proud and independent human beings, which they were. Untouchables By 1909, the lowest strata of Indian society came to be known as untouchables. Emergence of Dr.Ambedkar on the political scene provided the leadership and stimulus to untouchable movement. He insisted to address untouchables just as untouchables. He regarded the terms Ã¢â¬ËDepressed classesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËDalitsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËHarijansÃ¢â¬â¢ either confusing or degrading and contemptuous. Dr.Ambedkar made it abundantly clear, Ã¢â¬ËIt was through political power that untouchables were to find their solution, not through acceptance by HindusÃ¢â¬â¢. He gave untouchable movement a national character and a distinct identity during late twenties and early thirties. Other prominent Dalit leaders like Mahatma Phule, Ambedkar or Gopal Ganesh vehemently criticized Hindu hierarchical structure and regarded untouchability as an inevitable concomitant of Varna/caste system. They taught the lower castes to get united and make eradication of caste system their major plank as it engaged them to forced labour or unsavory jobs, imposed many restrictions on them and prevented them from joining the mainstream of the society. According to them, Hindus treated lower castes as lesser human beings, meek and helpless persons, who should always remain at the mercy and benevolence of upper castes. They tried to find the solution of their problems through political power, not through acceptance by Hindus. By 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, numerous caste organizations, especially in the South and West, organized themselves into larger collectiveness by keeping contacts and alliances with their counterparts at other places; formed associations and federations at local and regional levels and emerged as a powerful political force. Together, they demanded special legal protection and share in politics and administration on the basis of caste. In 1928, Simon Commission established their separate identity at national level, independent of intermediate castes as untouchables. It readily accepted their demands through Communal Award of 1932. Gandhiji along with other National leaders regarded it as the Ã¢â¬Å"Unkindest cut of allÃ¢â¬ , which would create a permanent split in Hindu Society, perpetuate casteism and make impossible the assimilation of untouchables in mainstream. Dr.Rajendra Prasad said, Ã¢â¬Å"The principle of dividing population into communal groups, which had been adopted in the Minto Morely Reforms, had been considerably extended, even beyond what had been done by Montagu Chelmsford ReformsÃ¢â¬ ¦.The electorate in 1919 was broken up into ten parts, now it is fragmented into seventeen unequal bitsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Giving separate representations to Schedule Castes further weakened Hindu communityÃ¢â¬ ¦ Th e British introduced every possible cross-divisionÃ¢â¬ . Untouchables in Independent India: After Second World War emergence of the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëwelfare stateÃ¢â¬â¢ swept the whole world. Independent India, as a civilized democratic society, considered it its humanitarian obligation to uplift and empower the submerged sections of society. The overwhelming poverty of millions belonging to lower strata of society and their near absence in echelons of power at the time of Independence has led the government to of India to intervene. The Constitution of India has directed the Government to promote social justice and educational, economic and other interests of the weaker sections with special care. It instructed the Government to remove the poverty and reduce inequalities of income and wealth and provide adequate representation to the downtrodden in power echelons through Affirmative Action Program/Reservation Policy. Public facilities, which were denied to untouchables so far, should be made accessible to them. The successive governments both at national as well as provincial levels initiated various Welfare Plans and Policies for employment generation and their social, economic and political growth from time to time. Dalits: Dalit, a Marathi word means suppressed. The term was chosen and used proudly by AmbedkarÃ¢â¬â¢s followers under the banner of various factions of Republican Party of India (Formed in 1956). The Mahars of Bombay (8%), Jatavs of UP (Half of the SC Population in UP) and Nadars and Thevars of Southern TN being numerically significant, played a decisive role in taking forward Dalit movement. Maharashtra Dalit movement has a longest and richest experience. In 1972, a distinct political party, in the name of Dalit Panther was formed in Maharashtra. It organized the lower castes under the banner of Ã¢â¬ËDalitÃ¢â¬â¢ throughout India. One of the founders of Dalit Panther, Mr.Namdeo Dhasal widened the scope of Dalit by including SC, tribes, neo-Buddhists, landless labour and economically exploited people. Its orientation was primarily militant and rebellious. Dalit Sahitya Movement legitimized and reinforced the use of the term Dalit. Since then, this term is very popular amongst the unto uchables. Earlier, a few leaders of untouchables had at least some regard for the cultural tradition of India. They did not reject Vedic literature or the foundations of Hinduism, out-rightly. Dr.Ambedkar accepted that all parts of Manusmiriti were not condemnable. Gopal Baba Walangkar had said that Vedas did not support untouchability. Kisan Fagoi, another Mahar leader of pre-Ambedkar era had joined Prarthna Samaj. But present Dalit leaders are vehemently against cultural traditions of India, which according to them, are based on inequality and exploitation. There is always a fear of upper caste or intermediate caste backlash. In mid sixties, an aggressive Dalit movement started under the banner of Shoshit Samaj Dal in Central Bihar, which has, presently, become a major center of Naxalite movement. Dal was founded by Jagdeo Mahto, who began to mobilize the lower castes against economic repression and exploitation of women by upper caste feudal elements. The new phase of Dalit assertion is most prominent in the most populous state of UP, where the upper caste domination has been challenged by BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party) formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram and Mayavati. They redefined Dalit politics especially in north India. Their approach to Dalit issues was more socio-political rather than economic. BSP has started pursuing power with militancy since 1990. Of late, BSP has made significant inroads in UP, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. BSP has borrowed all their phraseology from Dalit Panthers. Most of their utterances are arrogant, revengeful and opportunistic. Political and economic vested interests of its leaders have aroused militancy among discontented youths of different castes and communities all over the nation. They care only for rights and pay scant attention to their duties. There started a cutthroat competition for scarce positions of power and prestige. Once again, the tendency of Ã¢â¬Ëdivide and ruleÃ¢â¬â¢, as was there during British domination, has emerged in national scenario. The growing desire of Dalits to rule has made them very sure of their friends and foes. Dalit leaders, even after so many years of Independence has identified Upper Castes as their enemy and intermediate castes sometimes as their friends and sometimes as their enemies. Kanshi Ram, a BSP leader initiated a formula of DS4, meaning Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangarsh Samiti, taking into its fold untouchables, STs, Muslims and OBCs. OBC leaders also know that Dalit parties now control a large vote bank. Therefore, from time to time, they try to please Dalits leaders in order to increase their own political strength. But Dalits are in no mood to play a second fiddle to other national political parties. They are aware of their growing influence and crucial role as a kink-maker in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s highly competitive and unstable political atmosphere. All the three major national political formations Ã¢â¬â CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s UPA BJPÃ¢â¬â¢s NDA and National Front Ã¢â¬â are wooing frantically Dalit leaders and competing with each other to have a pre or post poll alliance with them. Instead of demanding a share in power structure, equity or social justice, Dalits now want to reverse the power equation and to transform the society by capturing all political power. Their aim is to get hold over the posts of PM-CM (Political Power) through electoral politics and control over administrative authority Ã¢â¬â the bureaucracy Ã¢â¬â through Reservations/Affirmative Action Program. There is an elite section amongst Dalits, which protects its turf under the banner of Dalits at the cost of poorest of Dalits. It does not care much to bring Dalit masses into the mainstream. For some, presence and miseries of large number of Dalits is a recipe for Dalit vote-bank, for others enjoying all the benefits of affirmative action programs initiated and implemented by the Government of India and other concessions given to them. Whatever might be the condition of Dalit masses, but the political power and arrogance of Dalit leaders and intellectuals are at rise. And here lies the crux of Dalit politics. Dalits at International platform Dalits are not satisfied even after having growing influence in ballot-box politics and attaining enough places in the government jobs. Since 2001, these activists have been pushing the cause internationally arguing that Indian Dalits are like blacks in US till 1950. They faced problems in workplace, at school and in temples. In 2005, some Dalit leaders belonging to All India Confederation have sought intervention USA, UN and the British and EU Parliaments on the issues of Ã¢â¬ËuntouchabilityÃ¢â¬â¢. UN recognizes religion, race, language and gender as main causes of inequality in the world. Dalit activists want caste to be included too in this category. They desire to have Global alliance, global involvement and intervention of the international community to put pressure on the government of India to address the problem Dalit marginalization. They feel that globalization and privatization has made it difficult for Dalits, tribals and OBCÃ¢â¬â¢s to compete on equal footing or fi nd enough space in the job market within the country or abroad. At the behest of the Republican Congressman from New Jersey, Chris Smith, the US Congress had held a hearing on 6.10. 05 on the subject. A resolution on the issue Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s unfinished Agenda: Equality and Justice for 200 million victims of the caste systemÃ¢â¬ was prepared by the house committee on International Relations and US Human Rights to be tabled in the US Congress. Ã¢â¬Å"Despite the Indian governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s extensive affirmative action policies, which aim to open government service and education to Dalits and tribes, most have been left behind by IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s increasing prosperityÃ¢â¬ ¦. Much much more remains to be done.Ã¢â¬ The resolution says, Ã¢â¬Å"It is in the interest of US to address the problem of the treatment of groups outside the caste systemÃ¢â¬ ¦ in the republic of India in order to better meet our mutual economic and security goalsÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ So far, intensive lobbying by Dalit groups including followers of Ravidass sect succeeded in getting passed the Equity Bill on March 24, 2010 in the House of Lords. It empowered the government to include Ã¢â¬ËcasteÃ¢â¬â¢ within the definition of Ã¢â¬ËraceÃ¢â¬â¢. In 2001, India was able in keeping caste out of the resolution adopted at 2001 Durban Conference. Along with it, staunch supporters of Human Rights, some Scandinavian countries, Church organisations around the world and Lutheran World Federation have shown interest and expressed their solidarity with Dalits. Recently the comment of UN Commissioner for human rights, Navipillay asking India that Ã¢â¬Å"time has come to eradicate the shameful concept of casteÃ¢â¬ and proposals of UN Human Rights CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s or US based Human Rights Watch (HRW) to recognise caste as a form of discrimination Ã¢â¬Ëbased on descent and birthÃ¢â¬â¢ appear not to be based on rational understanding of caste system. Their opinion about untouchability is greatly influenced by the lobbying of powerful/influential Dalit leaders and Dalit intelligentsia. No one knows where the Dalit assertion will lead the nation to? It is not the paternalistic policies, (which have failed to yield so far the desired results) that are required for the upliftment and empowerment of submerged sections of society, but there is need to educate, make them aware of their rights and duties, provide enough employment opportunities and other civic facilities like health etc at the grass root level for the sustainable growth of backward communities.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Avis Budget Group - Term Paper Example The company values aligned employees with visions or mission to achieve the targets of being an industry leader. 7 The aim of the Avis Budget Group is to become the number one company in the vehicle rental industry. This aim is being worked through by commitment. The brands of the company uniquely drive company towards growth. The company follows the ideology of creating value for all the customers. The company maintains integrity while making all the major decisions. The channel of communication in the organization is open and the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibit teamwork while performing all the business practices. The Avis Budget Group is situated across the globe so it operates in a diverse environment with a diverse work force. The company analyzes its strengths and weaknesses and takes responsibility of all the challenges which arise and the decision which the company makes. It also works responsibly for the interests of the shareholders. 7 STAKEHOLDERS 8 Stakeholders are all those pa rties that are directly influenced by the operations of the company (Harrison, Bosse, and Phillips, 58 Ã¢â¬â 74). Managing stakeholders is important for the success of the firm (Bosse, Phillips, and Harrison, 447- 456). The stakeholders of the Avis group include car dealers and other suppliers, operators, tourists and tour operators, businesses requiring AvisÃ¢â¬â¢ service for transportation, diverse workforce, shareholders, governments and industry participants of the rental cars in countries where Avis and Budget is providing services. 8 SENSE 8 UNCOVER 11 SOLVE 14 ACHIEVE 20 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Avis budget group is a well known name in the business of the vehicle rental services. It is a leading global service provider with operations spread on more than 10,000 locations. The company has its operations in 175 countries around the globe. The strategy of the company is to spread the business in all areas where the rental transport services are used. This is in places where t ourism and business trips are made very commonly. The company operates in North America, Europe, Middle East, Africa and Latin America region. Most of the offices which are located in North America, Europe and Australia are company owned or either rented to the independent contractors who operate as the entrepreneurs for their outlets and share profits with the company. The current issues that the ABG is facing are with the strategic operations of the company which has been outsourced to the contractors who operate independently. The customers are also not satisfied with the services of the company because the services which they get from various outlets are not the same. The customer representatives of the outlets are also not aligned at providing proper services to the customers. This is because they are not motivated and donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the core values which the company wishes to deliver to the customers. This report is highlighting the issues which the company is facing presently and offers recommendations for the company to overcome those issues and challenges. The company despite of the failing customer services is profitable. Therefore, suggestions are made that section of profits must be allocated to the improvement of the services of the outlets. The Avis Group must develop strengthen relationship with the contractors so that the issues of the operators can be resolved and it can pursue towards excellence with the passage of time. A plan for the improvement
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
What is Performance Management - Essay Example individual responsibility for the continuing improvement of business processes needs to be established, and individual skills and contributions need to be encouraged and nurtured. One tool for monitoring performance management isÃ performance appraisal. For organizations, performance management is usually known as company performance and is monitored through business appraisal. For Mega-Widget Company, Performance ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s is beneficial as it facilitates the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to deliver strategic and operational goals which can be translated to a growth in sales, reduction of costs, and increased operational efficiency ultimately translating to greater competitiveness and enhanced the bottom line. It also provides the employee a clear understanding of how meeting target performance adds value to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic goals (Mithas, 2011). For the individual employee of Mega-Widget Company, Performance Management is beneficial as it creates an environment that motivates employees to be at its best. Through Performance Management, employees are also able to know how much and how they are contributing to the growth of the organization. And as the employees contribute to the growth of the organization, Performance Management provides the incentive structure by which employees are rewarded for achieving if not exceeding their goal in the organization (Salden and Sowa, 2011). Performance feedback is theÃ on-goingÃ process between employee and manager where information is exchanged concerning the performance expected and the performance exhibited. Constructive feedback can praise good performance or correct poor performance and shouldÃ alwaysÃ be tied to theÃ performance standards (Mithas, 2011) Performance feedback is designed to improve the performance of employees as correlated to Performance Management. It serves as a mechanism to reinforce and praise positive behavior and as a corrective measure to a less than desirable performance.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Women and Health - Assignment Example However, maybe due to the fact that they often compete with the opposite sex to be treated as equal, women of recent generations have neglected their well-being. Changed lifestyle has contributed a number of ailments to women that could affect their health during their childbearing years. There are prenatal screenings being offered to pregnant women to ensure the health and well-being of the child they are carrying. Also, couples are being offered screenings to know their so-called genetic compatibility or incompatibility to know the ratio of having a healthy and normal child. There would be instances that screenings would be disregarded by parents at some point and say that they would accept their child in whatever health condition they might be in whether at birth or at the course of their lives. What parents or future parents should consider is that, if they would not undergo screenings and their child would be suffering from a certain ailment, they as parents are disregarding the right of a child to grow up with a healthy body and be accepted in the society. One should accept that though as advanced and liberal the society might be there are still instances that physically and/or mentally challenged children suffer from discrimination almost their whole lifetime ( South-Paul, et al., 2004; Karpin & Savell, 2012). Another hindrance that might occur for prenatal screenings would be culture. There are aspects of the beliefs of ethnic groups and population where pregnancy or the child that is still in the womb is considered as sacred or should not be disturbed. This is an aspect which can be the topic of debates for years and decades, however, would still end up into nothingness. However, this should not be the case. There should be scholars from the medical field to address or enlighten these ethnic groups. Prenatal and even newborn screenings are not done to step on their traditions and cultures; these are done to ensure the future and well-being of the next generations and the generations to come after them.Ã Ã
Monday, August 26, 2019
Article Summary with questions to be answered over MAT2A Mutations Predispose Indivuals to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms - Case Study Example Independent measures were applied since different zebrafish were used in each condition of mat2aa MO injection. b. The control was a zebrafish with normal phenotype with no injected MO, it had minimal pericardial effusion and no tail defects. After the injection, moderately affected showed large pericardial effusion and small eyes. Severe effects showed large pericardial effusion, small eyes and severe tail curvature. d. From this data, it can be concluded that mat2aa MO injection in the zebra fish caused significant defects in embryonic development. The developmental defects in the zebrafish were rescued by the wild type MAT2A mRNA more significantly compared to the mutant MAT2A mRNAs encoding either the p.Gly344Ala variant or the p.Arg356Hs variant. 5. The overall findings of the paper indicate that MAT2A loss of function variants predispose individuals to FTAAD. In rescuing the knocked-out defects in the zebrafish, WT MAT2 was more effective compared to other mRNA variants that were previously studied. This was used to establish whether the human wildtype and p.Gly344Ala and p.Arg356His mutant MAT2A mRNA rescued embryonic defects. 6. The main limitation in this research is that the disease progression is not known. The loss of function variants in MAT2A in FTAAD are predicted to lower cellular SAM levels which could lead to aortic disease through several pathways. It is probable that reduced SAM levels could decrease methylation activity or decrease in glutathione activity that increases oxidative stress. It is possible that the pathology that leads to aortic disease due to loss of MAT IIÃ ± may overlap with mutations of Fibrillin-1(FBN1) a protein that is altered in individuals with Marfan syndrome. 7. Identification of the pathway by which decreased enzymatic activity of MAT IIÃ ± leads to thoracic aortic aneurysm. Experiments that can help determine the pathway can be done by observing MAT IIÃ ± in zebra fish
Sunday, August 25, 2019
An innovative Leadership Development Programme (LPD) - Coursework Example This was in line with the innovation to be practical and simple to grow into how leaders operated the business. The leadership in all the branches of GE has been included in the program. The leaders have learned how to transfer the opportunities and leadership ideas into initiatives that produce results. The launch of the new program focused on global growth in all the branches across the world. This required an assessment on what has been worked on and what is needed for improvement to achieve the expected results. LIG success had relevance and value that surpassed GE. Innovating can be taught to leaders and teams in organizations to achieve the expected outcome. For example, PwC US also launched a Genesis Park which is a development program that is unique and intensive. The program is designed to create business leaders of tomorrow. The programs help employees to integrate what they learn and how they operate in the daily activities. Govindarajan (2011) contends, Ã¢â¬Å"Most organizations achieve the expected outcomes by use of the new programs by developing innovations that include; keeping intact teams as one for development; leverage actionable programs; sharing best practices; create a common language; secure leadership support; and conduct extensive follow upÃ¢â¬ . Keeping intact teams as one for development; innovation requires teams to work together. This task seems easy but, it is one that differentiates many innovation programs. The leadership development programs at times fail to drive the real change expected as the leadership or managers do not go together in the course of the learning process. The effect of bringing the entire team together is significant. This helps the teams to build consensus more easily and quickly. In addition, the process fosters a greater commitment in applying the changes for the operations of the organization. Leverage actionable innovative leadership development programs;
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Module 5 TD-HRM 401 - Recruitment - Essay Example Such may include a situation in which an employee has given out some confidential information regarding an investigation into the conduct of an employee by government authorities (Friedman, 2005). Employers need to take several actions that are aimed at minimizing retaliation actions such as coming up with policies against retaliation, proper communication with the employees who are making complaints at a personal level or in a staff meeting, ensuring confidentiality on any complaint that has been raised by the employees as well as proper documentation of any complaint brought up by the employees. Employers need to further offer training to the employee so as to make them to clearly understand what actions constitutes retaliation and how to respond when such occurs. The trainings should be aimed at offering counselling opportunities to the affected employees so as to boost their morale even as they strive to make their genuine concerns to be
Friday, August 23, 2019
The Global Warming Phenomenon - Term Paper Example Furthermore, this increases the risk for flooding in the usual storm-afflicted areas, and the likelihood of drought in locations that get relatively less precipitation. The change in temperature also makes the storm tracks vary, making the weather less predictable. More importantly for humans, increasing temperature will lead to heat-related health incidents, air-quality respiratory illnesses, and low crop yields (Environment Protection Agency). Because of the vast effects of global warming, even the government is being called upon to resolve the issue. A strong effort from the Congress to mandate the polluters to pay for the clean-up of the greenhouse gases they produce is needed to prevent the excessive and unnecessary greenhouse gas emissions as well as to hasten the elimination of the gases. Investments on clean energy industries that use wind and solar power should are now strongly promoted. Households are encouraged to implement energy efficiency practices such as driving hybri d vehicles, reducing electricity use at homes and manufacturing plants with energy-saving machines, and advocating public transportation use, walking and biking (National Energy Information Center). MAN-MADE GLOBAL WARMING Many scientists believe that human activity is the main driving force causing global warming. Many evidences support such claim. It was seen that although the temperature in earth started increasing since the 1800, the most rapid increase has been observed in the recent decades (Environmental Protection Agency), and the increasing amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are blamed for it. Greenhouse gases is a mixture of gaseous compounds such as water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO2), and aerosols that can fill the atmosphere to prevent infrared radiation from escaping to the space, trapping the heat and increasing the overall temperature of the earth (National Energy Information Center). According to World Meteorological Organ ization, there was almost a 30% increase in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere in a span of two decades. Its concentration increases because the mechanisms that regulate their amounts in the atmosphere become less efficient. For example, in the case of CO2, it is regulated by the carbon cycle. During pre-industrial era, despite the production of CO2 by animals, the atmospheric CO2 remained constant. However, the continuously increasing levels of CO2 were noticed since the advent of industrialization, which emit the gas by biogas burning to power the machineries. Currently, the increased electricity and transportation use, as well as continuing deforestation add onto the CO2 in the atmosphere (World Meteorological Organization). CH4 is emitted from landfills, coal mines, oil and gas operations, and agriculture, all human activities. Similar to CO2, the industrial era marked the increase of CH4. NO2, on the other hand, is released from oceans, by burning fossil fuels, fertilizer use and in dustrial processes. Despite the relatively low amount of increase, its effects are around 300 times greater than equal amounts of CO2, because it also destroys the ozone layer that protects the earth harmful ultraviolet rays. Unfortunately, we cannot prevent the earth from heating up. This
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Tourism Industry, in Dubai and Turkey - Research Paper Example Both Dubai and Turkey depend tremendously on tourism for revenue generation as well as a source of income and employment. Both countries show considerable hospitality towards tourism by using incentives as well as having scrupulous tourist infrastructure and appropriate staff. Government in both Turkey and Dubai provide sufficient funding to the tourism industry. Both regions have also suffered a setback due to stigmatization from the west especially after the September 11 2001 bombing in the United States, which was linked to persons from the Middle East. This greatly affected the tourism industries over the last decade. Dubai and Turkey differ in the type of visitor sites they have preserved. Dubai is one of them most recommended tourist destination in Middle East for tourists mostly from Arab, Asia and European. Visitors are primarily business people or shoppers. The city of Dubai is a lovely site due to the elegant shopping malls as well as outstanding hotels and restaurants. Mos t tourist sites are artificially assembled. There are few and less impressive natural tourist sites. Turkey is endowed with stunning natural sites such as the outstanding coastline, archaeological sites, and the appurtenant climate. Another attraction for tourist in turkey is the long summer (United Arab Emirates Web; Kassam, & Choufany Web). The Dubai tourism sector is as well as the government is extremely accommodating to visitor as they provide excellent guidance for visitors as well as tax-free shopping. The government also offers incredible transport for tourists. Dubai has airline links with almost all countries in the globe. On the other hand, Turkey is linked to Europe by suspension bridges. The airlines are not as extensive as those for Dubai (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 210-212; United Arab Emirates Web) Factors enhancing tourism in Dubai include desirable but cheep tourist hotels, good security, magnificent shopping malls with variable product prices. Dubai is therefore considered to have one of the best catering to tourists. Turkey government, according to (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 209) has ratified a tourism encouragement act to boost tourism development. The act allows for employment of foreigners especially in tourism and airlines sectors as well as provision of land for tourism investment. TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is a combination of Asian as well as western culture, which makes it accommodative for tourists from Europe, and other regions of the world. Dubai on the other hand follows Asian cultures quite strictly (United Arab Emirates Web; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 210-211). The Target Markets and Different Market Segments Dubai Has Targeted In the Past or Should Target In The Future In Dubai, tourism is a major source of income for the city. The tourism sector in Dubai receives about eight million tourists every year from various parts of the world especially from Europe and some Asian countries. The high number of visitor is due to the great hospitality and use of incentives to encourage tourists. However, the industry hopes to increase this number to about fifteen million tourists by 2015 (Kassam, & Choufany Web). In the past, Dubai has vastly depended on it superb shopping malls and exceptional airline services to entice business people and shoppers. Dubai is attempting to reconstruct the tourism industry to be sustainable. In future, Dubai targets the medical tourist market by improving the health facilities to provide expert medical services, which will attract and encourage visitors to Dubai. They are already advertising
English Poem Analysis Essay In this poem, Pablo Neruda is talking about life, and how he feels that it is an insignificant business. He talks about life after death, saying that nobody keeps what they have and says that life is nothing but a borrowing of bones. The best thing he claims to have learnt from life is that one should not have too much of either joy or sadness, but experience both in equal quantities. He feels that his being happy was a punishment, a condemnation that caused him to plunge into the sorrows of others, and to share with them their sorrow. He says that he did not do this for fame or for money, but because he could not live in the shadows, the shadows of other people. He says that we can heal our own wounds by weeping and singing, but in front of us lie thousands of others who are in constant suffering. He feels that his business on earth was to fulfil his spirit, the happiness he felt with the sum of all his actions. It gave him great joy to bathe in the sea under the sun, and in the very foam of the sea, his heart which lay dying was seeped into the sand. The poet makes use of immense imagery in all his works. There is no poem written by Pablo Neruda, which is lacking imagery. It is one of the most common literary devices used by the poet. And this is one such poem where he has used various kinds of imagery to illustrate his thoughts.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Healthcare Management Communication and Ethics Question 1 (LO1a) Critically assess the FIVE (5) levels of managerial communications. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (2 marks each, a total of 10 marks) Intrapersonal Communication is the communication process that happens internally. It is also a communicators internal use of language or thought and the basic level of communication. Intrapersonal Communication is like a talking to oneself or a self talk to explain something.Ã Intrapersonal communication is very useful to our daily living it is like having a conversation within oneself to clarify ideas or analyzing a situation. It is also used to have a self awareness and reflection on something.Ã To know yourself on how you deal with different situations especially in work places is boost by a self confidence. Intrapersonal communication helps builds self esteem because you are making aware of yourself by letting the inner you what you are capable of doing. Interpersonal Communication- is a level of a communication between a two individuals with a use of different mode of interaction. This kind of communication is being utilized when an individual wants to inform or to transmit a message to an individual.Ã It is also a exchange of ideas and information whether via face to face interaction or thru mobile communication. Interpersonal communication is very important to any business or career success. If a person is applying for a job a good interpersonal communication with the interviewer is very important to win the job the person is applying for. Even in the business settings interpersonal communication is essential especially to those who are in marketing department. This level of communication builds rapport and it is necessary to have a good conversation to the other person. The message must be clear and understandable to the receiver so a good feedback can be received. Group Communication- refers to the interface between members of a small group of individuals or a department. It applies to 3 or more member of a team, group or even a department. It may apply a verbal or non verbal communication for a common function. It is structured and initiate group members a fair opportunity to convey opinions and suggest ideas is significantly more dynamic advantage. The message is shared to a several member of a group in one time so it thus saves time and the effectiveness is highly advantage because 3 or more persons are sharing ideas and concepts. A department meeting is also a group communication where as department members are setting a time, minutes and targets to be proposed in the meeting to attain the common goal. Organizational-refers to the communication within the whole organization in which all stakeholders are part of the interaction. From employees, direct supervisors to the top managers. There are to subtypes of Organizational Communication the first on is Intra-organization and Inter Organization.Ã Intra- organization is the interaction within the single organization which the communication done internally. While the inter organization is the interface between two or more organization set up for a common goal. The channels used in this types of communications are it can be thru official letters, bills, proposals and the most effective is the minutes of meetings. The challenge with the inter organizational communication is the difference of the company culture, management culture and language barrier. The issue that may arise in intra- organization is lesser because the control of the organization is in the internal management. But the process is the same. Agendas can be communicated thru official letters, memos, notice boards and meetings. Mass Communication refers to the passage of the information or messages to a collection of group people or a large scale of audiences which relayed by a single communicator at the same time. The message or information is transmitted quickly because of different mediums or channels that can be used. The information are being transmitted through the use of televisions, radios, social medias like facebook , news papers or even books. The function of Mass Communication in the society can be cultural celebrations, religious gatherings, festivities, health surveillance, weather update, or warn people of certain threats and even entertainment. The Mass communication is very influential because of it is easily accessible and the audiences are in large groups of people. The feedback in this communication is minimal because it is only use to provide certain information and the mode of transmitting the message is one way. Question 2 (LO1a) Provide TWO (2) recommendations for improving the communication process in the given case study above.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (5 marks each, a total of 10 marks) In Jennys case there was also a failure from her direct or immediate supervisor because for three months the supply has not been deliver. There was no communication between Jenny and her direct Manager or supervisor. Jennys supervisor should look for invoice slips, receipts or any evidence that the supply has been ordered or just waiting for the delivery. The interpersonal communication between the two was not established. To improve the communication between Jenny and her supervisor there must be face to face meetings to identify what is the issue or to just follow up the supplies if it is ready for the delivery or if there is an issue. The advantage of the face to face meeting is coordination and it will ensure the smoothness of the operation and it will prevent the issue that was happened with Jenny and the supplier. Jennys must have a memo or notice board for her as well to prevent forgetting the important daily routine or she should have done prioritizing her work and schedules. The speaker must speak clearly and precisely so the receiver will understand a Question 3 (LO1b) Critically evaluate TWO (2) types of managerial communication used in the given case study. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (5 marks each, a total of 10 marks) In this case there is a verbal communications between nursing staffs and other hospital staff and computer aided communication. However the results of the communication did not end well. Verbal communication is one of the simplest ways of communicating at the workplace. And the information sent orally through words and can be emphasize the feelings with body language or hand gestures. Verbal communication can be done one by one interaction or can be done in group meetings. This is also a two way communication the message is relayed by a sender to a recipient, and the recipient can express his thought through feedback. Managers can communicate to the staffs through face to face interaction, emails, and phone calls and also via internal memos. Effective verbal communication prevents internal issues and it can increase productivity to the members. Computer aided communication like sending a message through emails is also a reliable medium of communication managers can use. Sending email s to the employees saves time and cost but effective. In this channel the message can be send to a group of people that requires the information. This is effective way in coordinating work and schedules unlike in verbal interaction the receiver might forget. While in emails it can be saved and the receiver can read again. The disadvantage of this type of communication is that cannot be use in urgent situation rather than face to face interaction. Urgent matter sent through emails can sometime neglect and the receiver needs a electronic gadget to view the message and access to a internet. If the receiver does not have access to internet the message cannot be receive. Question 4 (LO1b) Discuss TWO (2) recommendations for improving the communication process in the above given case study.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (5 marks each, a total of 10 marks) There are failures in communication in this case and the control of the staffs was not handled effectively because there is a conflict of interest and unfair treatment between staffs. The relationship between the members of the organization causes the failure of coordination. To improve communication process the charge nurse should have communicated first with other counterpart if there will be a conflict in the work schedule. The supervisor of the group should have initiated a meeting within the group to analyze the situation. The coordination was poor and there was no information sent to other members of the group until the problem arises. Sara Lang, Dr. Goodman and Rick Walters should have coordination with each other and should have arranged a meeting to arrange the staff work schedule. The new time table was not reviewed properly and there was no information sent to the group about the change of the work schedule. The group must have coordination with each other to prevent this repeating in the future. The Work schedule must be posted at the memo boards and emailed as well and copied to everyone so that there will be no misunderstanding. Personal life must be removed in the work place to prevent favoritism that will cause conflict of interest in the future. Question 5 (LO1c) Explain how the TWO (2) types of feedback approaches used by the clinical mentor in Case Study 3 which relates to the effectiveness of managerial communication. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (5 marks each, a total of 10 marks) The clinical mentor who is observing the counselling in approach number 1 is doing the Descriptive feedback. The clinical mentor identified and describes how the nurse interacted to the patient. The mentor was furious on how the nurse interacted with the patient. The nurse reacted in judgemental way and that could hinder the quality of building trust and rapport with the patient. The mentor commented to the nurse to let her know and understands what she needs to do to improve her conversation with the patient. In this way it will prevent the patient to disclose more information about her. To be more effective counsellor, insensitive interaction and judgemental comments must be avoided. In Approach two prescriptive feedback was used by the mentor to the nurse because she suggest something to the nurse that would probe further about the condom use. Prescriptive feedback provides advice about how to communicate and interact and it is like constructive criticism. Prescriptive feedback pr ovides suggestions to improve ways in dealing with the people. Thus helps someone progress in their communication skill. Communication in healthcare field is important because it is the foundation of care.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Objectives Of The Bretton Woods System Economics Essay Since the beginning of the 19th century, globalization, international trade and free trade between countries became the new economic order and several attempts have been made since then to develop policies and schemes to ensure the stability of the international monetary system. It is safe to say that in truth, the world economy has never been in a state of utopia, but nevertheless, we have never stopped trying to attain such. The Bretton Woods era of 1944 to 1977, one of the few fairly successful schemes the world powers created in trying to achieve economic utopia, though existed for a short period, has been accredited as being one of the most successful international monetary systems, so impressive was the economic stability and growth of the era that there have been ongoing talks for a comeback of the system. In this paper we attempt to shed some light on the defunct Bretton Woods system and the possibility of its comeback. In the first section, we discuss its history, design and objectives. Second section, we discuss the reasons for its demise. Third section, we discuss the reasoning behind the calls for a new Bretton Woods. Fourth section, we discuss the obstacles that could prevent the establishment of a new Bretton Woods and lessons from its past experience. Section five will contain the conclusion and some recommendations. SECTION ONE THE OVERALL DESIGN AND INTENDED OBJECTIVE OF THE BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM Background and Intended Objectives of the Bretton Woods system At the end of the World War II, 44 allied countries and Argentina came together in Mount Washington Hotel in the area of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, with a major motive of correcting the ills of the post-war I era which was characterized by International economic disorder, beggar-thy-neighbor policies- where countries trying to come out of their depressed states do so, but at the expense of other countries. The overall intended objective was therefore stable exchange rate and possible promotion of world peace. There was the recognized need for an institutional forum for International cooperation on monetary matters, so that in the advent of a world-wide crisis, such as world wars, there would be an internationally agreeable solution, rather than individual countries adopting selfish policies. Build-up of the System This recognized need had prior to the conference in 1944, instigated discussions amongst the British and American governments, and their economic experts, who had come up with different plans; Harry Dexter White of the U.S treasury on one hand, and Lord Keynes of Britain on the other, and the conference was seen as merely formalizing, and finalizing the agreements made. The final decisions which were agreed to at the Bretton woods conference were influenced majorly by the U.S plans. This is evident of the economic and military prowess of the United States at that time. The concentration of power in the hands of few countries, the like-mindedness of the overall goal (not necessarily the policies in achieving these goals) and the willingness and ability of one country-the U.S to takeover leadership, allowed for the success of the Bretton Woods conference. The Design The system was designed to incorporate the advantages of both a fixed rate system, such as the gold standard (stable exchange rate), and that of a flexible exchange rate system (flexibility), and the resultant system was the adjustable peg rate system. The Peg and Exchange Convertibility: The U.S dollar was pegged to gold at the fixed rate of $35 per ounce, and every other countrys currency was then pegged to the dollar at a par value which had to be maintained or defended by buying and selling the dollar in the foreign currency market. Though there was no International Central Bank to produce an International currency, and control its supply, the U.S dollar became in effect, the world currency. With the fixed peg of $35 per ounce of gold, the rate at which countries could exchange their dollar for gold and vice-versa, the U.S dollar became as good as gold, and this boosted faith in the U.S dollar. This system afforded an opportunity for exchange rates amongst countries to be fixed in the short run, within a 1% band around the pegged rate. A country could change the rate at which it was pegged to gold, outside the 1% band, only if its balance of payment was in fundamental disequilibrium. Why The U.S Dollars: The U.S was still the only currency being backed by gold, and at that time held three-quarter of the worlds monetary gold (Gold had been transferred to U.S by European nations during the war), leaving the $ the most appreciated currency to the rest of the world. It was also the strongest economy after the World War II, and was considered liquid enough to meet the demand of increasing Internationalization, and global trade. Addressing Liquidity: To satisfy International liquidity, and to prevent the repeat of the gold shortage of the 1920s, and the fallout of the fixed rate of the 1930s, another major decision to be made was as regards adequate supply of official monetary reserves; This was very fundamental to the effective running of an adjustable peg rate. The conference agreed to a system of subscriptions and quotas which reflected each countrys economic strength. The quota of each member country was made up of 25% of gold and the remaining 75% in the countrys domestic currency. The quotas were important also because they determined the voting right, and the amount of foreign currency each member country could borrow from the fund. The Commissions: Three commissions were set up at the conference to achieve its intended objectives. The first Commission headed by Harry D, White of the U.S treasury was designed to formulate the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, which was at the very heart of the system. The second commission was also introduced to formulate the Articles of Agreement for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This was chaired by Lord Keynes of the United Kingdom. It then had the duty of financing post-war international reconstruction and development. Now known as the World Bank, it remains a very influential global body with a broader capacity. The third commission, was chaired by Dr. Eduardo Suarez of Mexico, and it was charged with coming up with other means of International financial cooperation. SECTION TWO THE REASONS FOR THE EVENTUAL DEMISE According to economic historians, the Bretton Woods system came to a halt in the 1970s leading to a switch from a state-led to a market-led system of monetary control. Crucial events leading to its demise being the suspension of the dollars convertibility into goldÃ in 1971, the United states abandonment of Capital Controls in 1974, and Great Britains ending of capital controls in 1979 which was swiftly copied by most other major contries, amongst other reasons enumerated below: Balance of Payment: A major cause for the demise of the Bretton Woods system was its dependence on the United States economy. The system was designed to remain strong as long as the U.S economy remained strong. However, an excessive supply of US dollars on FOREX markets in exchange for other currencies led to the US dollar depreciation and appreciation of non-reserve currencies. To maintain the fixed exchange rate, non-reserve countries were required to intervene on the private FOREX. For example, the British central bank was required to run a balance of payments surplus, buy the excess dollars and sell pounds on the private FOREX market. This Balance of payment surplus had inflationary problems because of the excess supply of the non-reserve countrys currency. The U.S. economy also faced inflationary pressure from operating a balance of payment deficit, the federal government expenditure rose from financing the Vietnam War and social programs. The U.S used expansionary monetary policies, printing more money, in order to finance those huge expenses. This increased money supply, which led to U.S goods becoming more expensive than foreign goods due the rise in prices and caused a large demand for foreign currency. The Triffin Dilemma: Another reason for the collapse of the system was the Triffin dilemma. Robert Triffin was a Belgian economist and Yale University professor who highlighted the problems related to dollar overhang. Dollar overhang occurred when the amount of U.S dollar assets held by non-reserve central banks exceeded the total supply of gold in the U.S treasury at the exchange rate of $35 per ounce. Dollar overhang occurred in the system by 1960 and continued to worsen throughout the decade of the 1960s. By 1971, foreign holdings of U.S dollars stood at $50 billion while U.S gold reserves were valued at only $15 billion. This led to speculation on the U.S dollar, devaluing the dollar and holding gold became the safe route. In a gold exchange standard this linkage between gold and the reserve currency is believed to provide the constraint that prevents the reserve currency country from disproportionate monetary expansion and its ensuing inflationary effects. In the face of balance of payment deficits leading to a severe depletion of gold reserves, the U.S had several adjustment options open. One option was a devaluation of the dollar. However, this was not an option easy to implement. The only way to realize the dollar devaluation was for other countries to revalue their currencies with respect to the dollar, as the currencies were fixed to the dollar. The other devaluation option open to the US was devaluation with respect to gold. In other words, the U.S could raise the price of gold to $40 or $50 per ounce or more. However, this change would not change the fundamental conditions that led to the excess supply of dollars. At most, this devaluation would only reduce the rate at which gold flowed out to foreign central banks. Also, since the U.S gold holdings had fallen to very low levels by the early 1970s and since the dollar overhang was substantial, the devaluation would have had to be extremely large to prevent the depletion of U.S g old reserves. The other option open to the U.S was a change in domestic monetary policy to reduce the excess supply of dollars on the FOREX. Recall, that money supply increases were high to help finance rising federal deficit spending. A reversal of this policy would mean a substantial reduction in the growth of the money supply. If money supply increases were not available to finance the budget deficit the government would have to resort to a much more unpopular method of financing; namely raising taxes or reducing spending. The unpopularity and internal difficulty of such fiscal and monetary prudence led the U.S to resort to other options. Suspension of the Dollars Convertibility: The final blow on the Bretton Woods system came on August 15, 1971 when the then U.S president Richard Nixon announced measures to stem the excessive flight of dollars on foreign demand and reduce the balance of trade deficit as well as cause non-reserve countries to revalue their currencies against the dollar. The measures were a 10 percent surcharge on imports, a 90 day wage and price control, and the suspension of convertibility of dollar to gold. The 10 percent surcharge on imports was to force countries, such as Japan, to revalue their currency by 10 percent and the 90 day wage and price control was to prevent foreign exporters from transferring the burden of the 10 percent import tax through increased price on the American people as well as reduce inflation. The suspension of convertibility of dollar to gold ultimately ended the gold exchange standard of the Bretton Woods system and changed the system to a reserve currency system. This prompted the Smithsonian agreement of December 1971 where non-reserve countries agreed to revalue their currencies against the dollar for the 10 percent import charge to be dropped, and the eventual devaluation of the dollar. The price of gold rose from $38 per ounce to $44.20 per ounce in 1971 and even higher to $70.30 per ounce causing an increase in flight of dollar abroad and prompting non-reserve countries to abandon the pegging of their currency to the dollar and moving into a floating exchange rate regime. SECTION THREE THE REASONING BEHIND ONGOING DISCUSSIONS TO INTRODUCE A NEW SYSTEM The last 10 years have been followed by many public discussions about Bretton Woodss system with different controversial opinions. According to S.Dammasch (2000, p.11-12) Human rights activists argue that the programmes for the structural adjustment (SAP) of the developing countries initiated by the World Bank and the IMF has led to increase poverty of the East-bloc states. In contrast, however, major industrialized nations have begun to worry about the implications of the growing size and the speculative nature of financial movements in times of increasing globalization trends. Thus, calls for a new system of Bretton Woods have been heard in almost every industrialized country. Several calls have been made over the years for a refurbished international system to tackle the problem of uncontrolled capital flows amongst nations. Several Financial journalists have also noted that Financial crises since 1971 have been preceded by largeÃ capital inflowsÃ into affected regions. It wasnt until late 2008 that this idea began to receive substantial support from leading politicians. There has been a call by French President Nicolas Sarkozy during the World Economic Forum in Davos in 2010, for the reinvention of the Bretton Woods system of currency valuations in order to remove volatility and monetary manipulation by some nations to enhance their export successes. (Diane Francis, 2010) On October 13, 2008, British Prime MinisterÃ Gordon Brown (APT Team, 2008) said world leaders must meet to agree to a new economic system: We must have a new Bretton Woods, building a new international financial architecture for the years ahead.' Generally the industrial nations experienced much slower growth and higher unemployment in the post Bretton Woods era, and according to Professor Gordon Fletcher in retrospect the 1950s and 60s when the Bretton Woods system was operating came to be seen as aÃ golden age. (Fletcher.G,1989). Financial crises are seen to have been more extreme and have increased in frequency with the emerging economies bearing the brunt of it before the most recent global financial crisis which started in 2007. Chief amongst these strengths of the old Bretton Woods as noted by Anna J. Schwartz (2000) was that there were low and stable inflation rates on the average for most Industrialised countries except for Japan during the Bretton woods era. More so, considerable expansion of international trade and investment and the real per capita income growth was higher than in any monetary regime since 1879. SECTION 4 CHALLENGES TO A NEW BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM Various factors have been identified as clogs in the wheel of the advancement of a new Bretton Woods system, some of them are: Evolution of the World Economy: One of the major reasons why a new Bretton Woods system might not work is because of how evolved the global economy has become in terms of international trade and monetary management. After the demise of the old Bretton Woods system, the following structural changes have taken place in world economies: Growth of international currency markets: due to the instability and lack of certainty in the financial world, having a fixed exchange rate became difficult and thus rational expectations and predictions were fuelled with uncertainty. Thus, for countries to make well informed decisions based on prevailing economic conditions, they adopted a floating exchange rate system, so that the true value of the economy could be revealed at all times. A major reason the Bretton Woods system was successful was because of its fixed exchange rate system. Thus, with the current increase in trade and volatility of the monetary system, a fixed rate system might be difficult to implement. Lack of Dominant Currency: During the Bretton woods era the U.S. dollar was the most stable and powerful currency. It was also the only currency strong enough to be exchanged for gold. Since it was the strongest currency, countries traded mostly in the dollar. Although currently, due to the prevailing economic conditions, the dollar and other currencies like the Chinese RMB, euro, yen are unstable and not strong enough to be dominant currencies. The Old Bretton Woods was successful because it only had one currency to measure by. The lack of a dominant currency would therefore pose challenges to the development of a new system and multiple currencies will only be more destabilizing. Derivative trading: with the emergence of the international currency markets, derivative trading has been a popular favourite of the financial market traders. Speculation, hedging, derivatives and arbitrage trading in the financial system have significant impact on the level of international prices and exchange rates, that it cannot be ignored. Integrating these in a new monetary system would involve complex controls which might be difficult to implement. Conflicts of Interest: Different nations have different levels of growth, different objectives, and different currency policies. For some countries adopting a fixed exchange rate is more convenient, while for others, especially developing countries having a flexible exchange is more profitable. Due to the varying preferences and objectives of each nation, being cooperative and following a particular policy could be quite inconvenient and disadvantageous for most. Floating Exchange Rate System: The fixed exchange rate system of the old Bretton Woods was advantageous but had limitations. Though it encouraged price stability and was anti-inflationary, its restrictive nature prevented necessary adjustments to economic disequilibrium. Presently, the exchange rates worldwide for most countries are flexible. This flexibility makes trade between developing and developed countries bearable and profitable. When fixed, trade is expensive for most developing countries. And with the current economic recession, flexibility is what the economy needs to make profitable trade. The Original vs. A Sequel: According to G. Rachman (2008, Financial times), a new bretton woods will flop. Reason being that; Like most sequels, Bretton Woods II is not going to be nearly as good as the original. The first conference gave birth to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Its successor will be duller and less consequential. The first reason for this is that the global financial crisis, bad as it is, is not as bad as the Second World War. The war destroyed the established order and so the world leaders who drew up the postwar institutions on a blank slate. Second, there isnt enough time. The original Bretton Woods conference benefited from two years of preparation, and not a few weeks. Finally, there are conflicts of interest and U.S has neither the power nor the inclination to impose a new set of arrangements on the rest of the world. Of course his opinion is subjective, but in truth, given an ill prepared plan and conflicts of interests, a new Bretton Woods is most likely to fail. Inefficient Governance: Creating a Bretton Woods system that takes account of the complex intrinsic and extrinsic framework of the global economy is quite difficult. The economy has evolved a lot since the 1944 when the first Bretton woods system was made. There are more world leaders now, and the more the world leaders are, the higher the differences in preferences. Creating a Bretton Woods that could possibly integrate the objectives of all nations is not only difficult but if created will require high maintenance. LESSONS FROM THE OLD BRETTON WOODS U.S Deficit budget: During the Bretton woods era, the U.S ran deficit budget. Due to the nations constant lending to other nations, they experienced a severe deficit in their balance of payments which strongly affected their international financial position and status negatively. This deficit made the dollar weak and undependable. Due to the large scale of economic activities globally, the exchange rate is always adjusting to reflect the real value of the economy. Thus having just one currency pegged to gold in this present time is no longer reasonable. Currencies need to be flexible against each other, so that when a nation runs a deficit, and its currency looses value, the whole economy will not lose at the same time. Bretton Woods Policies: When the policy of a fixed exchange rate system was established, the financial strength of developing countries was not adequately taken into consideration. In the short run, the fixed exchange rate worked well for the developed countries, but as the developing countries claimed independence and began to evolve into the global economy, trade with the developed economies at a fixed rate was definitely too expensive for them. Moreover, polices imposed by the World Bank and IMF on developing countries like SAP i.e. structural adjustment program didnt work out well on the developing countries, it has been argued that it worsened their level of poverty, S.Dammasch (2000, p.11). The Slide to breakdown: The breakdown of the Bretton Woods system occurred via the failure of the dollar as the dominant currency, the rules of cooperation for its convertibility into gold and the exchange rates regime. The lack of a backup currency to resolve the issue or at least minimize the losses incurred contributed to the demise of the system. Thus the Bretton Woods dependence on the dollar been the only currency that could be convertibility to gold was too risky. Short run vs. Long run functions: Another problem with the Old Bretton Woods was that the same plan was made for the short run and long run. Right after World War II, the international monetary system was only concerned with their present predicament of how to get the economy back on track. Given the destruction caused by the war, addressing the pressing need of the economy was appropriate but during evaluations in the short run, proper schemes and policies should have been arranged to counter what could go wrong in the long run. The undoing of the Bretton woods system was that the plans for the short run were allowed to run indefinitely into the long run until they could no longer hold. Thus the system defaulted. SECTION FIVE RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION The worst banking crisis since theÃ Great DepressionÃ strongly suggests that a global rules-based system is necessary to oversee financial markets and coordinate economic management. Hence, this has led to the ongoing discussions to reintroduce the Bretton woods system. As discussed in the earlier part of this paper, this is not going to be an easy task as the worlds market economy has drastically changed and thus cannot be compared to mid 90s. This has led us to suggest some recommendations which should be helpful if this vision of reintroducing the Bretton Woods system is to be realized. A new Bretton woods system is plausible as long as it can adapt to varying economic conditions as the global economy evolves. Thus the following: Stronger monetary policy: Given the current system of floating exchange rates, the World Bank should advise the governments of each country to implement monetary policies that ensure that their currency is not undervalued or overvalued. Inflation targeting: Plans to prevent the occurrence of repetitive financial crises should be made; one defect that is common in all financial crises is inflation. Inflation is good for the economy, but when this inflation is excessive, the growth is one-sided. Thus as economic growth occurs for some sectors of the economy, other sectors are worse off accumulating loss and debt. There is a huge case of inequality in the economy and no real economic development ever occurs. Thus a new Bretton Woods system should take considerate account of the inequality caused by inflation. Regulation for derivatives: From the recent financial crisis, derivative trading has been seen to have played a huge role in increasing the negative impact of the crisis. If possible, a special regulation body or committee should be tasked with responsibility of monitoring and regulating the derivatives market. Because most derivatives are OTC, there is no public information as to their transactions, but since it has proven through the recent crisis that it has a strong hold in the market. Such activities should be divulged to the government. So, that to a certain extent an adequate regulatory framework can be established and financial loss minimized.
Monday, August 19, 2019
In this poem, Blake is trying to dispel the myth of grandeur and glory associated with London and to show the 'real' people of London and how they felt. London was seen and portrayed as a powerful and wonderful city where the wealthy lived and socialised. However, Blake knew that London was really a dirty, depressing and poverty-stricken city filled with slums and the homeless and chronically sick. To reveal the truth, Blake combines description of people and places with the thoughts and emotions of the people. For example, the second stanza says:"In every cry of every Man,In every Infants cry of fear,In every voice: in every ban,The mind forg'd manacles I hear"Blake combines the descriptions of the crying baby and man with the observation that the people oppress their hopes and dreams, figuratively 'chaining up their minds' because they know that they will never be able to achieve their dreams. Another Example is in the third stanza when Blake describes the crying chimney -sweep and then the "blackning church", but is really saying that the church does not want to dirty its hands by helping the soot-covered [black] chimney sweep. Therefore, a "blackning church" is one that helps the common, dirty people, and Blake says that "every blackning church appalls", showing that the aristocracy and those in positions of power did not want the church that they supported associating with the common people.Throughout the poem, Blake uses fairly simple language, punctuated with the occasional obscure word, but generally the more common words, probably to appeal to the common people who he was supporting through this poem.In writing this poem, Blake is trying to make the reader understand the truth about London and understand about the 'real' people, and he is also encouraging the church, and the aristocracy to help the common people and to support them instead of pushing them away and disregarding them.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Usage of Plague as a Biological Weapon Bioterrorism is defined as the intentional use of dangerous microorganisms or viruses to kill a large population of people. Common examples of biological agents include anthrax, botulism, smallpox, and the plague. The most common form is the bubonic plague that caused the deaths of a large percentage of the population in Europe during the Middle Ages. The bacterium, Yersinia pestis, causes three forms of the plague; however the pneumonic plague is used in bioterrorism because of its advantages in transmission and production. To be infected with the pneumonic plague, a person simply needs to breathe in enough of the aerosolized bacteria to allow them to incubate inside the body. Symptoms usually appear two to four days afterward and treatment consists of antibiotics and hospitalization. Death occurs if an infected person does not receive medical aid within 48 hours of symptom appearance. Its advantages as a pathogen make the plague an impending biological weapon. The halls are empty and dark. The clock on the lounge wall reads 2:34 AM and a few nurses finish their routine patient checks at the General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. The slight humming and beeps from the machines are the only sounds heard in the hospital as the last nurse quietly returns to her office. Unknown to the staff and patients, a terrorist attack has been launched within the building. There are no alarms, warnings, or signs that signal that anything has happened. From the outside, it would seem as if it was simply another night at the hospital. Yet, millions of aerosolized bacteria have been released into the air through the air conditioning system, causing every room with an air conditioning vent to explode wit... ...Bibliography Brannon, Heather. (2005) Plague as a Bioterrorism Threat. About Inc. July 20, 2005: http://dermatology.about.com/cs/bioterrorism/a/plague.htm Emedicine. (2003-2005). Biological Warfare. Emedicine Consumer Health. July 20, 2005: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/15704-3.asp Inglesby, T.V. et al. (2000). Plague as a Biological Weapon. Journal of American Medicine, (Vol. 283), p. 2281-2290. International Medical Corps. (1984-2004). Biological Threats. International Medical Corps. July 31, 2005: http://www.imcworldwide.org/cbr/L1C-m2.html Michigan Homeland Security. (2001-2005). Bioterrorism Agent Information. Michigan Homeland Security. July 20, 2005: http://www.michigan.gov/homeland/0,1607,7-173-23607-57902--,00.html Perry, R., Fetherson, J. D., (1997) Yersinia pestis- Etiologic Agent of Plague. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, (Vol. 10), p. 35-66
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Current world events have hindered the use of Collective Security Principle as various factors such as disease, poverty, natural calamities, terrorism, the use of biological, nuclear, and chemical weapons, and the instability of the world market. (UN, 21-55) 2) No, countries that have no experience in democracy as a form of government will not be successful in using that form of government. Democracy can only work if the constituents are capable and have experience on democracy. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s simply as different strokes for different folks. 3) Protectionists Policies were created in order to protect, restrict, and regulate trade for a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s business and/or companies from foreign entities, unlawful change and risks, flooding a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s market with cheaper goods, etc. The use of this policy has caught consumers unawares as they do not seem to notice that the price of commodities would be higher than in other countries. Politics has reared its ugly head into this policy as it might have been confused with imposing policies on a supposedly free trade with other nations and can affect the relationship between those countries that trade with one and the other. 4) Transgovernmentalism will be able to act on all aspects and factors within a country or countries that are under an agreement of trade and commerce as globalization does. Then again the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s identity, ideals, and way of life may be immensely affected as there would be a gradual change of transfer of ideas, goods, and even the flow of trade. (Slaughter, Paragragh 7) 5) The bombing of Hiroshima was simply a hasty defense act done by countries that protected the free world as they saw a threat that can damage and affect the harmony and peace of all in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s nations.As Hiroshima was a strategic port for army depot and industrial areas. References: Anderson, S. (1997). Unclean Hand: AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Protectionists Policies. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from http://www. freetrade. org/pubs/freetotrade/chap6. html Slaughter, Anne-Marie (October 2007). The New World Order. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from http://www. princeton. edu/~slaughtr/Articles/RealNewWorldOrderFA. txt United Nations (July 12, 2004). A more secure world: Our shared responsibility. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from www. un. org/secureworld/report2. pdf U. S. State Department. Democracy. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from http://www. state. gov/g/drl/democ/
Research Oh Susanna: The Wise Women of Mozart In Mozart's operas, as in his life, says Anat Sharon of the Department of Literature, Language and the Arts at the Open University, women rather than men are the ones who come out on top and who win our hearts. Mozart loved and valued women in his personal life and this was reflected in his operas. Through brilliant musical interpretations, his sympathetic, vividly-drawn portraits make audiences love even the most evil of women. Mozart's fascinating, complex female operatic characters are more than simply great musical creations.They also reflect the value Mozart himself placed on the women in his personal life. The women who were influential in Mozart's personal life were his mother Anna Maria; his talented sister Nannerl; his cousin Maria Anna; the woman whom he loved in his youth, Aloysia Weber; and her sister, his beloved wife Constanze. in the dramatic design of the plot. He didn't just receive completed texts; he also placed his per sonal stamp on the characters. One outstanding example of a musical image of a woman that is actually opposed to the text is the Queen of the Night in The Magic Flute.In the story, her character is absolutely a negative one. But Mozart gave her the most beautiful, much-loved arias that make the audience adore her. Thanks to Mozart's music, an image that could easily have been one-sided is in fact something much more complex. Ã¢â¬ In a recent lecture, Anat Sharon discussed the way that Mozart depicted women on stage rising above every test that men subject them to. Clearly, Mozart related to the women differently from the way he related to men. According to Anat Sharon, Ã¢â¬Å"Mozart's attitude to women can be considered both in terms of their standing in society s a whole and in terms of his personal life. Mozart himself was open-minded and aware of the lack of justice and equality in the feudal society in which he found himself. In the court of the Archbishop of Salzburg, where he lived and worked as a musician, he was considered no more than a kind of servant. Ã¢â¬Å"It is clear that this social order outraged him not only with regard to what he considered his own servitude, but also with regard to women. Therefore, sometimes women in his operas work together to protect their interests against the joint Ã¢â¬Ëenemy'Ã¢â¬â men. 1 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at piano ith muses by Hausleitner (Lebrecht Music and Arts) There is no doubt that the depictions of women in Mozart's operas are deeper, broader and more interesting than the depictions of men. Ã¢â¬ The question is how much of this slant is due to the librettist and how much to Mozart himself. According to Anat Sharon, Ã¢â¬Å"In the operas Mozart wrote with librettist Lorenzo da Ponte, The Marriage of Figaro, Cosi fan Tutte and Don Giovanni, Mozart was a full partner Anat Sharon explains, Ã¢â¬Å"One of the most idealized feminine characters of all in Mozart's operas is in fact not a noblewoman but a servant. That isSusanna in The Marriage of Figaro. Although traditionally in the commedia dell'arte, servants are more full of life and wit than their employers, Susanna is much more than this. She is an intelligent woman who knows how to read, write and play music. In one scene, Susanna and the Countess sit and together write a letter in which they help catch the Count in his betrayal. The countess dictates and Susanna writes; an example of two women working in harmony against men. The music also reflects the relationship between the two. They sing a soprano duet in which the countess sings and Susanna eplies. The melodies and words are so intermingled that it is virtually impossible to determine which woman is singing which melody. In effect, the two become one. Though this is not explicitly stated in the libretto, the Research this is all in their imaginations, but in All Women Do That (Cosi Fan Tutte), it turns out to be true: when the men are not near them, women are untrue. A ccording to Anat Sharon, Ã¢â¬Å"Even in Cosi Fan Tutte, Mozart's sympathies are on the side of the women. Here, the men set a test of loyalty and the women, who originally hadn't thought of betrayal, are swept away.This also happens to the men, so that in fact, not only do all women Ã¢â¬Ëdo that' but men too. This is apparently human nature. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Le Nozze Di Figaro (Tristram Kenton/Lebrecht Music and Arts) music is depicting a state of equality between the two in Mozart's eyes, even though they belong to two different social levels. Ã¢â¬Å"This is seen even more clearly in Mozart's decision to write an aria for Susanna to sing to seduce the Count, which is actually a serenade. A woman singing a love serenade is unheard of. Susanna is behaving like a man, trying o forge her own path in life. There had been nothing like this in the world of opera, until Mozart, since women were thought at the time to lack the intellect and capacity for rational thought tha t would enable them to manage their lives for themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"Mozart knew this well, because he had a personal example at home. Constanze was very shrewd and had initiative and good business sense, as can be seen by how well she established herself and their children after Mozart died penniless. She guarded his heritage, helped publish his works and was instrumental in the writing of his first biography. In contrast to the women in Mozart's operas who are very aware, men in the operas tend to be rather confused. Ã¢â¬Å"It seems that Mozart didn't value men very highly, especially compared to women, who in his eyes were always more complex and interesting. The male characters in the operas are more one-sided. In The Magic Flute, the only character whom the audience supports wholeheartedly is Papageno, the birdcatcher, who touches our hearts with his simplicity and innocence. Ã¢â¬ In all the operas, men are convinced that women are fickle betrayers. Generally, Ã¢â¬Å"In spite of the Ã¢â¬Ëgood' ending, there s no doubt that the message is subversive and there is an expression of something like feminism. Although the opera seems to indicate that women are dependent on men for love, in fact Mozart does not suffice with what is written in the libretto. He makes his own contribution to the different characters through musical characterization in his operas. Ã¢â¬Å"Another excellent example is the duet that opens The Marriage of Figaro. Figaro is measuring the size of the room where he and Susanna will live after their marriage while Susanna is trying on her wedding bonnet in front of the mirror.He is pleased with the room; she is less so. They sing a duet composed of two separate tunes Ã¢â¬â his, staccato in buffo style; hers, lyric and sensitive. The audience is made to wonder how on earth these two will ever live together compatibly if they sing in two completely different musical languages. It is also clear from the music, that she is the one who will s et the tone in their marriage. And that is indeed what happens in the opera Ã¢â¬â Figaro dances to her tune. Ã¢â¬ In such a way, in both the operas and in much of Mozart's personal life, do men dance to women's tunes. 1 1