Monday, April 29, 2019

Gout as a Metabolic Disorder Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Gout as a metabolic Disorder - Research Paper ExampleWhen urates in the blood reach the physiological saturation levels, they clear to form monosodium urate (MSU) and gradually accumulate in tissues. This leads to develop handst of asymptomatic hyperuricemia which results into urarthritis (Luk & Simkin, 2005). The clinical manifestations of gout embroil acute gouty arthritis, deposition of MSU crystals in soft tissues leading to formation of tophi, urate urolithiasis along with rare incidences of nephropathy. The malady develops in four stages an asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gout with intermittent flares, the intercritical period, and chronic gout (Sundram, 2010). The prevalence of gout have been on a rise during the last few decades chiefly due to changes in heart style patterns and increased longevity. In US prevalence has been estimated to be 5.1 million during the period spanning 1988-1994 by the terce national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). 5.2 cases per 1000 have been report by the US managed care database during the year 1999 compared to 2.9 cases in 1990. The disease prevalence rates accountly are higher in older men than those of rheumatoid arthritis. Incidences of gout have also escalated during the last two decades with annual levels account by Rochester Epidemiology Project to be twice as high as those report two decades foregoing for primary gout. Higher incidences of disease are reported in men than in women with increased incidences reported with advancing age in both sexes (Weaver, 2008). Despite high prevalence and severe burden of the disease, haunt mismanagement of the disease leads to avoidable incidences of morbidities and mortality (Luk & Simkin, 2005). The current report aims to present an in depth geographic expedition of the risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment modalities of gout. RISK FACTORS Sex Men have a higher level of serum urate rendering them significantly more under fire(predicate) to gout with higher probability of maturement of gout in men below the age of 30 compared to women of comparable age. The risk of gout development in men peaks in the age range of 75-84 years, while in women the risks are higher during post menopausal phase. afterwards the age of 60, both men and women are equally vulnerable to the disease (Rott & Agudelo, 2003). Diuretics Diuretic intake is a major cause of hyperuricemia since it causes significant enhancement of reabsorption of uric acid in kidney (Rott & Agudelo, 2003). Several opposite medications much(prenominal) as low dose aspirin, cyclosporine (increases tubular reabsorption of urate), pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and niacin also lead to hyperuricemia (Weaver, 2008). Comorbidities Individuals with hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, neuropathy, hyperlipidemia, chronic kidney diseases and metabolic syndrome are highly vulnerable to gout (Rott & Agudelo, 2003). Lead exposure has also been prime to be asso ciated with gout (Sundram, 2010). Poor urate clearance may render a hemodialysis patient vulnerable to urate deposition and gout. Obesity Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) in the range of 21-22 have been reported to be at much lower risk of developing gout compared to individuals with higher BMI. Alevel of 35 reverse the risk three fold. Obesity has been found to be associated with enhance urate synthesis and lower excretion of urate from the kidneys thereby leading to raised serum urate levels (Weaver, 2008). Dietary Habits A diet rich in meat such as red meat, organ meat and sea food has been associated with higher vulnerabilities to gout. The same has also been reported for alcohol consumption especially beer (Choi et al. 2004). On the contrary, purine rich vegetables exhibit no correlation with gout development and dairy products lower the risk marginally (Weaver,

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